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Copper oxide wire particles used to control Haemonchus infections: efficacy in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) at Busch Gardens Tampa and potential mechanism of action

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections affect production systems and exotic hoofstock in zoos, particularly giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Anthelmintic resistance (AR) prevalence is increasing in production systems and zoos. To combat the AR that compounds GIN problems, alternative control methods are used. One such alternative is copper oxide wire particles (COWP), which control the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus. COWP was given to seven adult giraffe at Busch Gardens Tampa, at descending dosages: 25 g, 12.5 g, 6.3 g. Treatment administration time was

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Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of feedstuffs for giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in German zoos

The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of feedstuffs for giraffes in zoos. In total, 196 samples of six categories of forage (n = 111) and eight categories of non-forage feedstuffs (n = 85) were analysed for chemical composition and in vitro gas production (GP). Lucerne hay as main forage source showed a stable average quality (mean ± standard deviation: crude protein 179 ± 19 g · kg–1 dry matter (DM); metabolizable energy 8.9 ± 0.6 MJ · kg–1 DM)

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Changes in Social Interaction Adolescent Male Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis) as they Shift from a Social to Solitary Lifestyle

Social interactions that result in preferential relationships between individuals have been observed in multiple species of mammals. Female mammals tend to stay in long-term associations with other females, while males rarely maintain such interactions once they reach sexual maturity. For example, adolescent male giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) form bachelor herds in the wild and shift to a solitary lifestyle when they reach adulthood. Males in bachelor herds engage in social interactions and display preference and avoidance behaviors toward one another, indicating

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Tsetse blood-meal sources, endosymbionts and trypanosome-associations in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, a wildlife-human-livestock interface

African trypanosomiasis (AT) is a neglected disease of both humans and animals caused by Trypanosoma parasites, which are transmitted by obligate hematophagous tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Knowledge on tsetse fly vertebrate hosts and the influence of tsetse endosymbionts on trypanosome presence, especially in wildlife-human-livestock interfaces, is limited. We identified tsetse species, their blood-meal sources, and correlations between endosymbionts and trypanosome presence in tsetse flies from the trypanosome-endemic Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) in Kenya. Among 1167 tsetse flies (1136 Glossina

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Giraffe Stature and Neck Elongation: Vigilance as an Evolutionary Mechanism

Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), with their long neck and legs, are unique amongst mammals. How these features evolved is a matter of conjecture. The two leading ideas are the high browse and the sexual-selection hypotheses. While both explain many of the characteristics and the behaviour of giraffe, neither is fully supported by the available evidence. The extended viewing horizon afforded by increased height and a need to maintain horizon vigilance, as a mechanism favouring the evolution of increased height is reviewed. In

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Movement Patterns And Home Range Sizes Of The Rothschild’s Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis Rothschildii) Translocated To Ruma National Park, Kenya.

The need for management of small, wild populations has been given limited attention. The Rothschild’s giraffe is poorly represented in East Africa, therefore, it is important that its populations and environments should be carefully managed to permit its survival. The objective of this study was to determine the movement patterns and home range sizes of the translocated Rothschild’s giraffes in Ruma National Park. Using binoculars, the giraffes were located, aged and sexed. Individuals were recognized by variations in their skin

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The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya

We compile over 270 wildlife counts of Kenya’s wildlife populations conducted over the last 30 years to compare trends in national parks and reserves with adjacent ecosystems and country-wide trends. The study shows the importance of discriminating human-induced changes from natural population oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors. National park and reserve populations have declines sharply over the last 30 years, at a rate similar to non-protected areas and country-wide trends. The protected area losses reflect in part their

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The Brain of the Giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis): Surface Configuration, Encephalization Quotient, and Analysis of the Existing Literature

The anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) has been poorly studied, except for the circulatory system. In particular, only a handful of studies have concerned the brain of this species since the first description in 1839. Accordingly, only a very few articles discussing encephalization mentioned the giraffe or used it in their calculations. In this article, we performed a thorough examination of the literature including old and grey, regarding the central nervous system of the giraffe. Furthermore, we

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Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular

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