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Ephemeral and Perpetual Diversity in Giraffa Camelopardalis

It is necessary to understand how giraffes could have evolved. We came up with Darwin’s theory, Lamarckism, and so forth. However, in a manuscript, I classified the species of Giraffa Camelopardalis in light of the heights as an arbitrary principle. Nevertheless, I wrote a paper on classifying Giraffa Camelopardalis species using heights as the reference point. It highlights the evolution of the giraffe posture in light of two characteristics of its postures, namely ephemeral diversity and perpetual diversity. Our theory

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A Review of the Status of Rothschild’s Giraffe SubSpecies Population in Africa

Africa is the cradle of the world’s giraffe species and the sub-species that keep evolving with more conservation approaches. However, the population of Rothschild’s Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) has been impacted at different sects in the wild. The aim of this paper was to review the status of Rothschild’s giraffe in Africa. A desktop descriptive review approach was used through perusal of different scholarly articles on giraffes. From the existing literature, this review exposes the effect of human effects on

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Community Attitudes and Knowledge on Conservation of Rothschild’s Giraffes in Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve in Kenya

The attitude and conservation knowledge of Rothschild’s giraffe ecosystems by host communities is critical in sustainability of parks and reserves in Kenya. This study was conducted in two different giraffe habitats, namely Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve in Kenya. The objective of the study was to assess the attitudes and wildlife conservation knowledge of the local community towards the adjacent protected area. A descriptive research design that involved administering of closed ended questionnaires in the survey was used

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The primary visual cortex of Cetartiodactyls: organization, cytoarchitectonics and comparison with perissodactyls and primates

Cetartiodactyls include terrestrial and marine species, all generally endowed with a comparatively lateral position of their eyes and a relatively limited binocular field of vision. To this day, our understanding of the visual system in mammals beyond the few studied animal models remains limited. In the present study, we examined the primary visual cortex of Cetartiodactyls that live on land (sheep, Père David deer, giraffe); in the sea (bottlenose dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, long-finned pilot whale, Cuvier’s beaked whale, sperm whale

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Evaluating physiological and behavioural responses to social changes and construction in two zoo-housed female giraffes

Exposure to external repeated or long-term stressors can alter animal behaviour and physiology. At zoos, construction of new buildings and habitats is one potential unavoidable long-term stressor. During the construction of a new exhibit near the giraffe enclosure at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL), the Zoo’s two female giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi and Giraffa reticulata, were monitored for changes in behavior and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels during five phases of construction and enclosure access. The FGM analysis was validated

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Use of a simplified non-invasive technic to monitor fecal progesterone metabolites and reproduction function in several zoo species: Efficacy of mini VIDAS® automate (bioMerieux)

Developing the zoos’ ability to assess the reproductive status of the individuals they house is essential to improve the husbandry and management of these species. The use of non-invasive techniques such as fecal hormone analysis has been proven to be a simple and effective way to achieve this. Designed by bioMerieux, mini VIDAS® instrument is used in human and veterinary medicine to evaluate different endocrinological parameters, including serum or plasma progesterone. This study evaluates VIDAS® Progesterone (PRG) assay’s efficacy to

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Mammal road-type associations in Kruger National Park, South Africa: Common mammals do not avoid tar roads more than dirt roads

The majority of Africa’s parks and conservation areas have a vast road network, facilitating motorized vehicle game viewing. These roads have an influence that is both road type- and species-specific, on the surrounding ecosystem. Due to their higher traffic volumes, we hypothesized that tar roads and their immediate surrounds within the Kruger National Park, South Africa, are avoided to a greater extent by medium-to-large mammals than comparable dirt roads in the park. We systematically recorded the presence of medium-to-large mammal

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Population analysis of retrotransposons in giraffe genomes supports RTE decline and widespread LINE1 activity in Girafdae

Background: The majority of structural variation in genomes is caused by insertions of transposable elements (TEs). In mammalian genomes, the main TE fraction is made up of autonomous and non-autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons commonly known as LINEs and SINEs (Long and Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements). Here we present one of the first population-level analysis of TE insertions in a non-model organism, the giraffe. Giraffes are ruminant artiodactyls, one of the few mammalian groups with genomes that are colonized by putatively active

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Leveraging homologies for cross-species plasma proteomics in ungulates using data-independent acquisition

The collection of blood plasma is minimally invasive, and the fluid is a rich source of proteins for biomarker studies in both humans and animals. Plasma protein analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) can be challenging, though modern data acquisition strategies, such as sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH), enable reproducible quantitation of hundreds of proteins in non-depleted plasma from humans and laboratory model animals. Although there is strong potential to enhance veterinary and translational research, SWATH-based

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Automatic animal identification from drone camera based on point pattern analysis of herd behaviour

This study investigated the accuracy of animal identification based on herd behaviour from drone camera footage. We evaluated object detection algorithms and point pattern analysis, using footage from drone altitudes ranging from 15 m to 130 m. We applied transfer learning to state-of-the-art lightweight object detection algorithms (Tensorflow and YOLO) based on feature extraction. In the point pattern analysis, we treated each animal as a point and identified them by the behavioural pattern of those points. The five animal species

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