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Fatal abomasal sand impaction in a giraffe calf (Giraffa camelopardalis) at the University of Ilorin zoological garden

A post-mortem examination was carried out on a 4-month-old giraffe which was reported dead early hours of the morning in the zoological garden, University of Ilorin. The carcass of the animal appeared slightly emaciated and on opening of the carcass the abomasum was distended with a hard mass felt inside the organ. On opening of the organ, it was filled with sand and weighing 3.8kg. Geophagia due to various factors were queried in the cause of the condition including seasonal

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Cutaneous Filariasis in Free-ranging Rothschild’s Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) in Uganda

Across Africa, wild giraffes suffer from a variety of skin disorders of mostly unknown etiology. With their populations already threatened from anthropogenic factors, it is important to understand infectious disease risks to giraffes. Here we describe filarid parasites and a portion of their genetic sequence associated with skin disease in Rothschild’s giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) in Uganda.

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Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorhynchus, Buphagus africanus) and tick abundances in acaricide‐treated livestock areas

Since the introduction of acaricides a century ago, their widespread use has enhanced cattle production throughout the world by controlling tick infestations on domestic livestock. Early arsenical and organochlorine acaricides improved overall cattle health but were toxic to oxpeckers (Buphagus spp.), birds endemic to sub‐Saharan Africa which eat ticks on domestic and wild ungulates (Stutterheim, 1982; Stutterheim & Brooke, 1981). Following the introduction of these acaricides, oxpecker populations declined significantly, though this trend was reversed as target‐specific acaricides increased in use

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Zambezi Giraffe Project Progress Report February 2017 to October 2017

Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) are one of the most loved and iconic megafauna in Africa, but their conservation status is currently of great concern, with a 2015 IUCN assessment listing the species as vulnerable to extinction. Furthermore, a recent study suggested that the one currently recognised giraffe species should be separated into 4 distinct species, meaning that giraffe populations may be at even greater risk than previously thought. The African Lion and Environmental Research Trust (ALERT) began giraffe research in the

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A comparison of postnatal arterial patterns in a growth series of giraffe (Artiodactyla: Giraffa camelopardalis)

Nearly all living artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) possess a derived cranial arterial pattern that is highly distinctive from most other mammals. Foremost among a suite of atypical arterial configurations is the functional and anatomical replacement of the internal carotid artery with an extensive, subdural arterial meshwork called the carotid rete. This interdigitating network branches from the maxillary artery and is housed within the cavernous venous sinus. As the cavernous sinus receives cooled blood draining from the nasal mucosa, heat rapidly dissipates

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A note on the feasibility of introducing giraffe to the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

During several visits to the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (KGNP) the introduction of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis to the Park was discussed. This note has been prepared to provide some background information for an eventual decision to be taken. Species are usually only introduced into South African national parks if they occurredd there within historical times (Penzhorn 1971). However, the suitability of the habitat for the particular species should also be considered.

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The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output

Giraffes – the tallest extant animals on Earth – are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. Arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmHg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such

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Using natural history information for zoo animal management: a case study with okapi (Okapia johnstoni)

Until recently, the impact that the presence of conspecifics may have on stereotypic behavior in naturally solitary species exhibited in zoological institutions has largely been ignored. This study examined the effect of adding a visual barrier between animal holding areas at the Brookfield Zoo on stereotypic head-rolling behaviour in an adult female okapi (Okapia johnstoni). Instantaneous sampling was used to document the proportion of time the female okapi spent head-rolling prior to and after visual barriers were constructed. Behavioural surveys were

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Morphology of the lingual papillae in the giraffe

We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex consisted of slender and thick conical papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was flower-bud-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual body consisted of large conical papillae and the fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was rose-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual

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Does oral stereotypy in captive giraffes decrease by feeding them evergreens and barks in winter?

Recently, several zoos have aimed to improve the welfare of captive animals by adopting certain feeding enrichments, particularly to address oral stereotypy in giraffes. Research has revealed that the utilization of certain feeding enrichments, such as browsing enrichment, is effective for preventing oral stereotypy. However, feeding of browsing enrichment may be difficult in winter, although its effect is not evident in this season based on previous studies. Therefore, the weight of tree feed foraged by the giraffes and their behavior,

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