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Feeding ecology and chewing mechanics in hoofed mammals: 3D tribology of enamel wear

Large herbivorous mammals have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a large variety of structurally diverse foods. Three-dimensional (3D) surface texture parameters are applied to investigate wear mechanisms related to tooth morphology, food source, and chewing dynamics. We tested 46 industrial 3D surface texture parameters for their capability to robustly indicate specific biomechanics in two grazing (Blue Wildebeest and Grevy’s Zebra) and two browsing (Giraffe and Black Rhinoceros) ungulate mammals. These species inhabit sub-Saharan Africa and represent foregut and hindgut

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Prey Preferences Of The African Wild Dog Lycaon Pictus (Canidae: Carnivora): Ecological Requirements For Conservation

Valuable conservation research on the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has identified that its current endangerment is primarily due to human persecution, although habitat alteration, interference competition with other large predators, and disease also are factors. Numerous studies have thus determined what should be avoided to sustain an African wild dog population, yet in this study we identify what is needed to conserve a wild dog population by using Jacobs’ index to determine its preferred prey species. Twenty-four assessments of

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Faunal Remains From Shaqadud

The present study deals with the faunal material collected by members of the Joint University of Khartoum/Southern Methodist University Butana Archaeological Project over two field seasons (Marks et al. 1982, 1983). These sites are located at the southern end of an irregular, elongate sandstone outcrop, approximately 50 km. into the Butana at latitude 16° 15′, 13 km. east of Meroitic Naga. A more detailed description and a map of the Jebel Shaqadud area can be found elsewhere in this volume.

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Modélisation de la distribution spatiale de la girafe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta, Linnaeus 1758) de l’Afrique de l’Ouest pour sa conservation au Niger

La conservation de la girafe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta, Linnaeus 1758), nécessite la connaissance de son aire de répartition potentielle et des facteurs environnementaux conditionnant cette répartition. Cette étude visait à identifier les facteurs écologiques régissant la répartition géographique de la girafe et la cartographie de son aire de distribution sous les conditions climatiques actuelles pour une meilleure planification de sa gestion durable. La modélisation a été utilisée pour cartographier l’habitat de la girafe suivant les modèles climatiques (CCMA et CSIRO),

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Savanna-Woodland Fire Regimes: Ecology, Management and Conservation of African Protected Areas

Fire is an important process that shapes the structure and functioning of African savanna ecosystems, and frequently occurs as either prescribed burns or unintentional wildfires in protected areas. Though the level of understanding of the ecological effects of fires has grown substantially over the past century, comprehensive information on the practical application of fire is still restricted, and management information is scattered. Similarly, an improved understanding of how fire affects African mammals is important for the management of both fire

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The clinico-pathology and mechanisms of trypanosomosis in captive and free-living wild animals: A review

Reports on the clinico-pathology and mechanisms of trypanosomosis in freeliving and captive wild animals showed that clinical disease and outbreaks occur more commonly among captive than free-living wild animals. This is because the free-living wild animals co-exist with the disease until subjected to captivity. In exceptional cases however, draught, starvation and intercurrent diseases often compromised trypanotolerance leading to overt trypanosomosis in free-living wild animals. Meanwhile, in captivity, space restriction, reduced social interactions, change in social herd structure, reduced specie-to-specie specific

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Persistence Of Large Mammal Faunas As Indicators Of Global Human Impacts

Large mammals often play critical roles within ecosystems by affecting either prey populations or the structure and species composition of surrounding vegetation. However, large mammals are highly vulnerable to extirpation by humans and consequently, severe contractions of species ranges result in intact large mammal faunas becoming increasingly rare. We compared historical (AD 1500) range maps of large mammals with their current distributions to determine which areas today retain complete assemblages of large mammals. We estimate that less than 21% of

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State-shifts of lion prey selection in the Kruger National Park

Aims: Indicators of pending state-shifts carry value for policy makers. Predator–prey relations reflect key ecological processes that shape ecosystems. Variance in predator–prey relations may serve as a key indicator of future state-shifts. Methods: Lion (Panthera leo) diet in the Kruger National Park was evaluated as such an indicator. Over the three-decade time span reviewed, variance in diet in relation to rainfall, prey abundance, management strategies and disease emergence were reviewed. Key results: Rainfall patterns, both seasonal and cyclical, were identified

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Wildlife Resources of Ethiopia: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions: From Ecotourism Perspective: A Review Paper

The economy of Ethiopia has prospered for many years on agricultural products but currently, the country expands to industrialization and service providing for additional incomes. However, the wildlife tourism and conservation practices are still at low attention. Therefore, this review paper identifies potential opportunities and wildlife diversity to promote wildlife tourism practices in Ethiopia. Furthermore, it also identifies the challenges and future directions to put into practice for future wildlife tourism industry. Wildlife tourism is one of the best potential

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A ghost fence-gap: surprising wildlife usage of an obsolete fence crossing

Wildlife fencing has become more prevalent throughout Africa, although it has come with a price of increased habitat fragmentation and loss of habitat connectivity. In an effort to increase connectivity, managers of fenced conservancies can place strategic gaps along the fences to allow wildlife access to outside habitat, permitting exploration, dispersal and seasonal migration. Wildlife can become accustomed to certain movement pathways and can show fidelity to these routes over many years, even at the path level. Our study site

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