The history, present status, plans for the future and constraints of consumptive utilization of wildlife in Kenya are discussed. Such utilization is considered to be a viable development option and has positive aspects for conservation of the environment and animals. It is proposed that illegal consumptive utilization is at such a level in the country that if it is not brought under control the wildlife population will decline catastrophically. There are numerous constraints of a legal and infrastructural nature which will reduce the potential of wildlife utilization, especially in the short term. Community knowledge of sustainable utilization methods is lacking as is, to a large extent, governmental and non-governmental support for such activities. The Kenya Wildlife Service is the body empowered to act in this area and it is funded to carry a community programme forward but implementation will require a massive locally-driven initiative without bureaucratic interference. Game ranching and farming are developing but involve only a small sector of the community and at a relatively low level compared with Southern Africa. Some practical and veterinary aspects are briefly discussed.