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Tsetse blood-meal sources, endosymbionts and trypanosome-associations in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, a wildlife-human-livestock interface

African trypanosomiasis (AT) is a neglected disease of both humans and animals caused by Trypanosoma parasites, which are transmitted by obligate hematophagous tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Knowledge on tsetse fly vertebrate hosts and the influence of tsetse endosymbionts on trypanosome presence, especially in wildlife-human-livestock interfaces, is limited. We identified tsetse species, their blood-meal sources, and correlations between endosymbionts and trypanosome presence in tsetse flies from the trypanosome-endemic Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) in Kenya. Among 1167 tsetse flies (1136 Glossina

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The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya

We compile over 270 wildlife counts of Kenya’s wildlife populations conducted over the last 30 years to compare trends in national parks and reserves with adjacent ecosystems and country-wide trends. The study shows the importance of discriminating human-induced changes from natural population oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors. National park and reserve populations have declines sharply over the last 30 years, at a rate similar to non-protected areas and country-wide trends. The protected area losses reflect in part their

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Moving through the mosaic: identifying critical linkage zones for large herbivores across a multiple‐use African landscape

Context Reduced connectivity across grassland ecosystems can impair their functional heterogeneity and negatively impact large herbivore populations. Maintaining landscape connectivity across human dominated rangelands is therefore a key conservation priority. Objective Integrate data on large herbivore occurrence and species richness with analyses of functional landscape connectivity to identify important areas for maintaining or restoring connectivity for large herbivores. Methods The study was conducted on a landscape with a mosaic of multiple land uses in Laikipia County, Kenya. We used occupancy

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Perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs toward giraffes in Northern Kenya

Giraffe populations are in continued decline and there is limited work on the human dimensions of giraffe conservation. This article assessed relationships among human dimensions concepts (normative belief, attitude, existence belief, perceptions) specific to the reticulated giraffe species (Giraffa reticulata) in northern Kenya. Data from in-person structured interviews with community conservancy members in two areas (n = 584) indicated that these concepts differed by study area, but overall, respondents felt positively toward this species of giraffe, valued giraffes as very

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Wild and domestic savanna herbivores increase smaller vertebrate diversity, but less than additively

1. Cattle and other livestock graze more than a quarter of the world’s terrestrial area and are widely regarded to be drivers of global biodiversity declines. Studies often compare the effects of livestock presence/absence but, to our knowledge, no studies have tested for interactive effects between large wild herbivores and livestock at varying stocking rates on small-bodied wild vertebrates. 2. We investigated the effects of cattle stocking rates (none/moderate/high) on the diversity of wildlife 0.05–1,000 kg using camera traps at

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Landscape-level changes to large mammal space use in response to a pastoralist incursion.

Pastoralists and their livestock have long competed with wildlife over access to grazing on shared rangelands. In the dynamic 21st century however, the configuration and quality of these rangelands is changing rapidly. Climate change processes, human range expansion, and the fragmentation and degradation of rangeland habitat have increased competition between pastoralist livestock and wildlife. Interactions of this type are particularly apparent in East Africa, and perhaps most obvious in northern Kenya. In 2017, following months of intense drought, a pastoralist

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Aerial total count Amboseli – West Kilimanjaro and Magadi-Natron cross border landscape, wet season, March 2010

The Amboseli-West Kilimanjaro/Magadi – Natron cross- border landscape, as referred to in this report, comprises various ecologically important areas in Kenya and Tanzania. On the Kenyan side it includes Amboseli National Park and the surrounding group ranches, the southern part of Kajiado district from Namanga to Magadi and Nguruman. On the Tanzanian side, the ecosystem covers Natron and West Kilimanjaro areas. Although this broad cross-border landscape is a very significant area for wildlife conservation, it has seldom been considered in

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Camera settings and biome influence the accuracy of citizen science approaches to camera trap image classification

Scientists are increasingly using volunteer efforts of citizen scientists to classify images captured by motion‐activated trail cameras. The rising popularity of citizen science reflects its potential to engage the public in conservation science and accelerate processing of the large volume of images generated by trail cameras. While image classification accuracy by citizen scientists can vary across species, the influence of other factors on accuracy is poorly understood. Inaccuracy diminishes the value of citizen science derived data and prompts the need

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Genetic architecture detected by microsatellite screening of the Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) populations sampled in two Kenyan national parks and an evaluation of the recent decline in the Lake Nakuru National Park population

There are six recognized populations of Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) protected in Uganda and Kenya. Four populations in Kenya are at Lake Nakuru National Park, Ruma National Park, Giraffe Manor, and Yoder Flower Farm. Two populations in Uganda are at Murchison Falls National Park and Kidepo Valley National Park. Both the Ruma National Park and Lake Nakuru National Park herd appears to be in good genetic health with respect to the likelihood of inbreeding or inbreeding depression. A question

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Behaviour and Population Dynamics of Maasai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) on a Kenyan Game Ranch

A study was carried out to obtain information on behaviour, social organisation, movement pattern, feeding habits and population dynamics of the Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) on Game Ranching Limited (GRL), Athi River, Kenya; and to use modelling and simulation techniques to assess different options for harvesting the GRL’s giraffe population. An existing giraffe photo-file was regularly updated during the course of the study. Individually known focal giraffes were followed for periods of 6 or 12 hours during daytime and their

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