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Some New Remains of Middle Miocene Mammals from the Chinji Formation, Northern Pakistan

New mammalian material excluding proboscideans described from four main fossil sites of the Chinji Formation, northern Pakistan, allow identifying Miotragocerus gluten, Tragoportax cf. punjabicus, Elachistoceras sp., Helicoportax sp., Boselaphini sp. indet., Gazella sp., Giraffokeryx punjabiensis, Giraffa priscilla, Dorcatherium minus, Microbunodon silistrensis, Merycopotamus nanus, Listriodon pentapotamiae, Conohyus sindiensis, Gaindatherium browni and Hespanotherium matritense. The tooth positions of all the fifteen species are documented. The findings enlarge our knowledge on the anatomic features of the described species. Quantitatively, the bovid taxa are

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Anatomical characteristics of the larynx in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

In the present study, the most outstanding anatomical findings of the larynx of a giraffe are described. The larynx obtained from a male necropsied animal was studied following fixation in a 10% formaldehyde solution. There was no rostral horn in the thyroid cartilage and so cranial thyroid fissure was almost smooth or hardly visible concave structure. Caudal horn was short and caudal thyroid fissure was very depth. Lateral surface of arytenoid cartilage possessed a well-developed oblique arcuate crest between corniculate

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True Ungulates From the Nagri Type Locality (Late Miocene), Northern Pakistan

The early Late Miocene type locality of the Nagri Formation from the Indo-Siwaliks has yielded remains of the true ungulates that are today extinct to the south Asian biogeographic realm. Thirteen species including Brachypotherium, Hipparion, Listriodon and the bovids of the true ungulates from the village Sethi Nagri, district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, are recognized, described and discussed in details. The tooth positions of all thirteen species are documented. Quantitatively, the taxa of the bovids are the most predominant. But Brachypotherium,

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New Fossil Remains of Giraffids from the Lower Siwaliks of Punjab, Pakistan: Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography

Taxonomic study from a late Miocene Fossil locality Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon, Lower Siwalik Hills of Pakistan has been conducted. New fossil remains belong to family Giraffidae which include right and left maxilla, isolated upper premolars and molars. After morphological and comparative analysis, the collection is attributed to Giraffokeryx punjabiensis and Giraffa priscilla. Size variation in dentition is taxonomically important for vertebrate evolutionary point of view and this is the main reason to conduct this study at this specific site

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The five digits of the giraffe metatarsal

Evolution has shaped the limbs of hoofed animals in specific ways. In artiodactyls, it is the common assumption that the metatarsal is composed of the fusion of digits III and IV, whereas the other three digits have been lost or are highly reduced. However, evidence from the fossil record and internal morphology of the metatarsal challenges these assumptions. Furthermore, only a few taxonomic groups have been analysed. In giraffes, we discovered that all five digits are present in the adult

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Large giraffids (Mammalia, Ruminantia) from the new late Miocene fossiliferous locality of Kemiklitepe-E (Western Anatolia, Turkey)

Kemiklitepe is a well-known locality with four recognised fossiliferous horizons, KTA to KTD, which have yielded a plethora of mammalian remains. Previous taxonomic studies indicate the presence of three giraffid taxa: Samotherium major and Palaeotragus rouenii from the uppermost three horizons, KTA, KTB and KTC, as well as Palaeotragus rouenii and Samotherium? sp. from the lowermost KTD horizon. In this study a new locality, Kemiklitepe-E, is presented for the first time. Kemiklitepe-E is located approximately 350 m NW of the

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Siwalik Giraffidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): A review

The article is based on the published literature regarding the family Giraffidae, particularly about the extinct Siwalik species. The provided information is collected from the previous published articles, aiming to produce the basic information of the Siwalik giraffids. The distribution of the Siwalik giraffid species is also briefly discussed.

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Comparisons of Schansitherium tafeli with Samotherium boissieri (Giraffidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China

We are describing and figuring for the first time skulls of Schansitherium tafeli, which are abundant in the Gansu area of China from the Late Miocene. They were animals about the size of Samotherium with shorter necks that had two pairs of ossicones that merge at the base, which is unlike Samotherium. The anterior ossicones consist of anterior lineations, which may represent growth lines. They were likely mixed feeders similar to Samotherium. Schansitherium is tentatively placed in a very close

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Giraffe and okapi: Africa’s forgotten megafauna

The Giraffidae family includes only two living species of ungulates: the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and the okapi (Okapia johnstoni), both restricted to the African continent. Taxonomically, the Giraffa and Okapia genera separated from each other approximately 16 million years ago (Hassanin et al., 2012), and they now exhibit as many differences as similarities. Today Okapia is represented by one species (Okapia johnstoni; Hart, 2013), though with surprisingly high genetic variation (Stanton et al., 2014), whereas nine subspecies of giraffe are

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