New Fossil Remains of Giraffids from the Lower Siwaliks of Punjab, Pakistan: Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography

Taxonomic study from a late Miocene Fossil locality Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon, Lower Siwalik Hills of Pakistan has been conducted. New fossil remains belong to family Giraffidae which include right and left maxilla, isolated upper premolars and molars. After morphological and comparative analysis, the collection is attributed to Giraffokeryx punjabiensis and Giraffa priscilla. Size variation in dentition is taxonomically important for vertebrate evolutionary point of view and this is the main reason to conduct this study at this specific site to add additional information about family Giraffidae. The fossil site has well exposed Chinji and Nagri Formation and has dated approximately 14.2-9.5 Ma. In this study, different aspects of evolution, taxonomy and biogeographic distribution as well as the relation of Giraffidae with Procerotidae have been discussed comprehensively. Palaeoenvironment, biostratigraphy and geology of the locality have also been discussed. The coexistence of Giraffokeryx punjabiens with its mammalian paleo-community reveals the persistence of mosaics of diverse habitats ranging from tropical evergreen forest to subtropical ones, closed seasonal woodlands to wooded savannas during the deposition of the Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon, Chinji Formation.

Last Updated
March 24, 2021