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Anthropogenic Influences on Distance Traveled and Vigilance Behavior and Stress-Related Endocrine Correlates in Free-Roaming Giraffes

Giraffes are an important tourist attraction, and human presence to wildlife is increasing. This has an impact on an animal’s behavior and its endocrine correlates. Studies on other species show alterations in movement patterns, vigilance, and stress-related hormone levels in the presence of humans. Limited information is available on how anthropogenic activities alter giraffe’s behavior, social structure, and related endocrine parameters. The purpose of this study was to obtain insight into anthropogenic influences on giraffe’s behavior and adrenal activity. We

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Ramifying effects of the risk of predation on African multi-predator, multiprey large-mammal assemblages and the conservation implications

Impacts of predators on prey populations are incurred not only through mortality inflicted, but also from how the risk of mortality affects the behaviour, spatial distribution and resource access of potential prey species. This risk is governed by exposure to predators and vulnerability following encounters. Behavioural responses to reduce risks have ramifying consequences for habitat partitioning, regional distributions and local impacts of herbivores on vegetation. These consequences are reviewed for carnivore-ungulate assemblages in African savanna ecosystems. Vigilance serves multiple functions,

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Factors Affecting Group Size and Vigilance Behaviour of Maasai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) on the Serengeti-Ngorongoro Ecosystem, Tanzania

This study investigated the factors affecting different group sizes of Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro ecosystem. The study was motivated to test the following hypotheses: 1) in a given group, the sex ratio of males to females with calves is related to group size; 2) group size affects vigilance behaviour; 3) illegal hunting influences group size and vigilance behaviour; and 4) group size differs in different habitats, being larger in woodlands during the wet season and in

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Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology: Energetic and social constraints

Sex ratios of giraffe groups differ in different habitats, with open vegetation having female‐biased groups, and tall, thick vegetation having male‐biased groups. On a ranch in south‐central Kenya, we quantified habitat differences of male and female giraffe groups and showed that the preference for open habitats by female groups was limited to groups with young. We suggest that this difference is due to the avoidance of predators of young giraffes. We also showed that rates of giraffe feeding peaked at

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Sexual segregation by Masai giraffes at two spatial scales

In this paper alternative explanations for observed patterns of sexual segregation by giraffes are examined at two spatial scales: within-habitats and within-landscape. Habitats are defined as recognizable plant associations and the landscape as the collection of all available habitat types. The study was conducted in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. At the within-landscape level, all sex and age classes of giraffes exhibited high degrees of preference for riverine habitats. Sex differences in habitat selection were mostly due to females with young,

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Factors affecting group size and vigilance behaviour of Maasai Giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis Tippelskirchi) in the Serengeti Ngorongoro Ecosystem, Tanzania

This study investigates factors affecting group sizes of Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro ecosystem, northern Tanzania. Various studies on giraffes have been conducted in the past, but none has investigated factors affecting giraffes’ group size and vigilance behavior in this vast ecosystem. As a result, I was motivated to investigate the following hypotheses: 1) in a given group, the sex ratio of males to females with calves is related to group size; 2) group size affects vigilance

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