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Dynamics of a Socially and Spatially Structured Giraffe Population in a Human-Natural Landscape

Sociality involves a constant trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of living in groups, and this trade-off can be influenced by the social and ecological environment in which individuals live. In this PhD I explored socioecological factors underlying the social and spatial population structure and dynamics of a large tropical herbivore with a highly fission-fusion social system, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Using a dataset of more than 3,000 uniquely identified individuals collected over a period of 8 years in the

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Diversity and abundance of wild mammals between different accommodation facilities in the Kwakuchinja Wildlife Corridor, Tanzania

Most of the wildlife corridors in Tanzania have been threatened by extensive human activities, including the establishment of tourist’s facilities. However, less attention has been paid to the degree at which tourist accommodation affects the abundance and diversity of wild mammals in wildlife corridors. This study assess the changes in abundance and diversity of wild mammals in relation to proximity to tourist lodges and tented camps in Kwakuchinja Wildlife Corridor. All wild mammals around four randomly selected accommodation facilities that

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Genetic connectivity and population structure of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Tanzania

Increasing human population growth, exurban development, and associated habitat fragmentation is accelerating the isolation of many natural areas and wildlife populations across the planet. In Tanzania, rapid and ongoing habitat conversion to agriculture has severed many of the country’s former wildlife corridors between protected areas. To identify historically linked protected areas, we investigated the genetic structure and gene flow of African savanna elephants in Tanzania using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers in 688 individuals sampled in 2015 and 2017. Our

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Bushmeat Consumption in the Tarangire-Manyara Ecosystem, Tanzania

Illegal hunting, driven by demand for bushmeat, threatens animal populations throughout Africa. While bushmeat consumption is thought to be common in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem (TME) of Northern Tanzania, its magnitude and drivers are not well understood. This lack of knowledge may inhibit effective mitigation policies. We conducted 394 household interviews in the TME in 2013 and 2014 to assess both the scale and the possible drivers of bushmeat availability and consumption in the ecosystem. Using generalized linear mixed models, information

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Long-term surveys of age structure in 13 ungulate and one ostrich species in the Serengeti, 1926–2018

The Serengeti ecosystem spans an extensive network of protected areas in Tanzania, eastern Africa, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is home to some of the largest animal migrations on the planet. Here, we describe a dataset consisting of the sample counts of three age classes (infant, juvenile and adult) of 13 ungulate and one ostrich species. Sample counts were tallied visually from the ground, or, in some instances, aerial photographs, during a period extending from 1926 to 2018.

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Mammal butchery by Homo erectus at the Lower Pleistocene acheulean site of Juma’s korongo 2 (JK2), bed III, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

The Olduvai Gorge is considered one of the most relevant archaeological complexes with regards to the study of our human evolution. This is especially evident when studying the emergence of hunting practices over the past 1.7 Ma. Butchery activities have been documented throughout Bed II, including the exploitation of megafauna in a larger number of sites. Among these, Hippopotamus, giraffe, sivatherium and large bovids have been documented to be consumed by hominins in, BK, TK, FLK-West and SHK between 1.3

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Aerial total count Amboseli – West Kilimanjaro and Magadi-Natron cross border landscape, wet season, March 2010

The Amboseli-West Kilimanjaro/Magadi – Natron cross- border landscape, as referred to in this report, comprises various ecologically important areas in Kenya and Tanzania. On the Kenyan side it includes Amboseli National Park and the surrounding group ranches, the southern part of Kajiado district from Namanga to Magadi and Nguruman. On the Tanzanian side, the ecosystem covers Natron and West Kilimanjaro areas. Although this broad cross-border landscape is a very significant area for wildlife conservation, it has seldom been considered in

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The importance of large prey animals during the Pleistocene and the implications of their extinction on the use of dietary ethnographic analogies

Estimates of the human trophic level and dietary quality during the Paleolithic are the basis for many hypotheses and interpretations regarding human evolution and behavior. We describe an additional factor that could have significantly influenced human evolution and behavior, the availability of large prey animals. Given the importance of large prey and the mounting evidence of the decline in its abundance throughout the Pleistocene, we question the reliability of past reconstructions of the human trophic level that were heavily based

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Long-term persistence of wildlife populations in a pastoral area

Facilitating coexistence between people and wildlife is a major conservation challenge in East Africa. Some conservation models aim to balance the needs of people and wildlife, but the effectiveness of these models is rarely assessed. Using a case-study approach, we assessed the ecological performance of a pastoral area in northern Tanzania (Manyara Ranch) and established a long-term wildlife population monitoring program (carried out intermittently from 2003 to 2008 and regularly from 2011 to 2019) embedded in a distance sampling framework.

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Giraffe diurnal recumbent behavior and habitat utilization in Katavi National Park, Tanzania

Resting behaviors play an important role in animals’ daily activities by minimizing energy consumption. Although this may be equally important to other behavioral states for sustaining life, it has not been well studied in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). This study characterized the bout duration, frequency, and age–sex class differences in diurnal recumbent behavior of free-ranging giraffe. Additionally, it is currently unknown whether giraffe utilize shady or safe areas for diurnal recumbency, as many other animals do. Therefore, we also investigated

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