A literature review of horn and horn-like structures in vertebrates to correlate placement to function, behavior, and niche.
In this paper, the true horns of bovids are compared to the many horn-like structures found throughout the animal kingdom. Literary sources were reviewed for a variety of horn-like structures. The review was limited to extinct and extant terrestrial vertebrates. 3D models of these organisms’ skulls and “horns” were created or acquired and 3D printed at the same scale to illustrate their differences and similarities and to analysis of their comparative size easier between large and small genera.