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Seasonal changes in social networks of giraffes

Fission-fusion social societies allow animals to respond in a flexible manner to environmental changes by adapting the size and composition of a group. Although group members change frequently in these systems, associations with preferred partners may be found. In this study, we examined the grouping patterns of a population of 80 individual giraffes in a fenced South African game reserve over a 12-month period. Using social network analyses as a tool to evaluate observed associations, we subsequently analysed both sex-

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