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The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraints on foregut, and adaptations of hindgut fermenters

An oft-cited nutritional advantage of large body size is that larger animals have lower relative energy requirements and that, due to their increased gastrointestinal tract (GIT) capacity, they achieve longer ingesta passage rates, which allows them to use forage of lower quality. However, the fermentation of plant material cannot be optimized endlessly; there is a time when plant fibre is totally fermented, and another when energy losses due to methanogenic bacteria become punitive. Therefore, very large herbivores would need to

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Ecological separation of the large mammal species in the Tarangire Game Reserve, Tanganyika

The ecological separation of 14 common ungulate species living in close contact with each other in a Tanganyika game reserve is shown to be achieved by six different factors: 1. the occupation of different vegetation types and broad habitats; 2. the selection of different types of food; 3. the occupation of different areas at the same season; 4. the occupation of the same area at different seasons; 5. the use of different feeding levels in the vegetation; 6. the occupation

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