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True Ungulates From the Nagri Type Locality (Late Miocene), Northern Pakistan

The early Late Miocene type locality of the Nagri Formation from the Indo-Siwaliks has yielded remains of the true ungulates that are today extinct to the south Asian biogeographic realm. Thirteen species including Brachypotherium, Hipparion, Listriodon and the bovids of the true ungulates from the village Sethi Nagri, district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, are recognized, described and discussed in details. The tooth positions of all thirteen species are documented. Quantitatively, the taxa of the bovids are the most predominant. But Brachypotherium,

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The five digits of the giraffe metatarsal

Evolution has shaped the limbs of hoofed animals in specific ways. In artiodactyls, it is the common assumption that the metatarsal is composed of the fusion of digits III and IV, whereas the other three digits have been lost or are highly reduced. However, evidence from the fossil record and internal morphology of the metatarsal challenges these assumptions. Furthermore, only a few taxonomic groups have been analysed. In giraffes, we discovered that all five digits are present in the adult

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The giraffe’s neck: another icon of evolution falls

The giraffe is a major problem for Darwinism for many reasons. No evidence exists in the fossil record for giraffe evolution, nor are evolutionists able to explain why the giraffe’s neck evolved. The most common Darwinian explanation for giraffe neck evolution—the advantage a long neck gave in reaching leaves high in trees for food—is now recognised by evolutionists as likely incorrect, and as a result many other ad hoc explanations have been proposed. Many writers either are unaware of (or

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