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Immunocontraception of male and female giraffes using the GnRH vaccine Improvac®

The aim of this study was to develop protocols for contraception in both sexes of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) by using the GnRH vaccine Improvac®. We evaluated the success of immunization by analyzing fecal reproductive hormone metabolites in female (n = 20) and male (n = 9) giraffes. Endocrine analysis provided the basis for the successful immunization protocol, as well as for assessing long‐term effects. Reliable reduction of fecal steroid metabolites to baseline levels in female giraffes was achieved with three,

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