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Anatomical characteristics of the larynx in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

In the present study, the most outstanding anatomical findings of the larynx of a giraffe are described. The larynx obtained from a male necropsied animal was studied following fixation in a 10% formaldehyde solution. There was no rostral horn in the thyroid cartilage and so cranial thyroid fissure was almost smooth or hardly visible concave structure. Caudal horn was short and caudal thyroid fissure was very depth. Lateral surface of arytenoid cartilage possessed a well-developed oblique arcuate crest between corniculate

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The histology of the giraffe’s carotid, functionally considered

Through the courtesy of Dr Chalmers Mitchell and Dr Vevers, and the facilities kindly afforded by Dr Scott and Dr Beattie, one of us had recently the opportunity of examining the carotid artery of a young giraffe at the Zoological Gardens. The object in view was to find out what structural mechanism existed for overcoming hydrostatic pressure in blood vessels, and the neck vessels of the giraffe seemed most likely to give the answer. The intermittent output of the heart,

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Aspects of Female Giraffe Reproduction: Review and Update

Introduction Giraffes belong to Africa´s iconic mammals and are amongst the most popular zoo animals. 0However, few visitors realize that there are at least six genetically distinct (sub) species of giraffes, of which two are already classified endangered due to habitat loss and fragmentation. Each of these endangered giraffe populations count less than a thousand individuals in the wild. Therefore, the role of zoological facilities for the conservation of giraffes is increasingly important. For successful reproductive management of our captive

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Quantitative Macroscopic Anatomy of the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) Digestive Tract

Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world’s largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. The majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. Giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. When compared to other ruminants, the giraffe digestive tract showed many of

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The Giraffe Biology, Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour (Book)

In one form or another, giraffes have been around for a very long time. And so has Homo sapiens. The interaction between giraffes and humans starts way back in prehistory, and rock art (paintings and engravings) is found all over Africa from Morocco, Algeria and Libya in the north, through Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania in the east, to Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Mozambique in the south (Le Quellec 1993, 2004; Muzzolini 1995). Wherever, in fact, there has been savannah.

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Large-scale ruminant genome sequencing provides insights into their evolution and distinct traits

The ruminants are one of the most successful mammalian lineages, exhibiting morphological and habitat diversity and containing several key livestock species. To better understand their evolution, we generated and analyzed de novo assembled genomes of 44 ruminant species, representing all six Ruminantia families. We used these genomes to create a time-calibrated phylogeny to resolve topological controversies, overcoming the challenges of incomplete lineage sorting. Population dynamic analyses show that population declines commenced between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, which is concomitant

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Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function

The reticulum is the second part of the ruminant forestomach, located between the rumen and the omasum and characterized by honeycomb-like internal mucosa. With its fluid contents, it plays a decisive role in particle separation. Differences among species have been linked to their feeding style. We investigated whether reticulum size (absolute and in relation to rumen size) and size of the crests that form the mucosal honeycomb pattern differ among over 60 ruminant species of various body sizes and feeding

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First comprehensive morphological analysis on the metapodials of Giraffidae

Giraffids are a group of relict pecoran ruminants with only two living taxa. During the Miocene, however, this group was much more diverse, with more than 20 different species showing a wide range of variability. In addition to many other parts of the skeleton this variability is also represented in their metapodials. We find inter-specific anatomical differences in the giraffid metapodials; each taxon evaluated possesses a unique combination of limb morphologies. The proximo-palmar/plantar metapodial surface provides useful characteristics and allows

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Giraffe Thermoregulation: a review

The ability to maintain a relatively constant body temperature is central to the survival of mammals. Giraffes are found in relatively hot rather than cold environments, have a body temperature of 38.5 ± 0.5°C, and must have evolved appropriate thermoregulatory mechanisms to maintain this temperature and to survive in their chosen habitats. Their thermoregulation depends on anatomical features and behavioural and physiological mechanisms. To minimize physiological thermoregulation giraffes orientate their bodies to optimize radiant heat gain and to maximize convective

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