The numerical status of sixteen game species in the Transvaal, excluding the Kruger National Park

The paper describes the results of a survey to determine the numbers of the following game species in the Transvaal: springbok, blesbok, zebra, blue wildebeest, black wildebeest, red hartebeest, gemsbok, eland, nyaia, buffalo, elephant, giraffe and squarelipped rhinoceros. The distribution of each species is discussed and the different localities of occurrence are illustrated. The growing […]

Systematic aerial sample survey of Laikipia county, April 2016 Preliminary Report

A systematic aerial sample survey of Laikipia County (9666km2) was carried out in April 2016 by Kenya’s Directorate of Resource Survey and Remote Sensing survey teams in partnership with Laikipia Wildlife Forum and Mpala Research Centre, with funds from US AID. This report presents the preliminary results as a basis for use by management and […]

Effects of body size on the diurnal activity budgets of African browsing ruminants

We compared the diurnal activity budgets of four syntopic species of African browsing ruminant that differ widely in body size. These were concurrently studied through all phases of the seasonal cycle, in the same area, using the same methods. We tested five predictions from the literature on how body size is expected to influence the […]

Quantifying the ecological success of a community-based wildlife conservation area in Tanzania

In Tanzania, community-based natural resource management of wildlife occurs through the creation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs). WMAs consist of multiple villages designating land for wildlife conservation, and sharing a portion of subsequent tourism revenues. Nineteen WMAs are currently operating, encompassing 7% of Tanzania’s land area, with 19 more WMAs planned. The ecological success or […]

Spatial variation in giraffe demography: a test of 2 paradigms

Examination of spatial variation in demography among or within populations of the same species is a topic of growing interest in ecology. We examined whether spatial variation in demography of a tropical megaherbivore followed the “temporal paradigm” or the “adult survival paradigm” of ungulate population dynamics formulated from temperate-zone studies. We quantified spatial variation in […]

The effects of increased hay-to-grain ratio on behavior, metabolic health measures, and fecal bacterial communities in four Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo

We evaluated whether increasing the hay-to-grain ratio offered to Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and alter feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio and salivary insulin, and alter fecal bacterial community structure. Giraffe transitioned to a ∼90:10 hay-to-grain ratio in even increments […]

Feeding-height stratification among African browsing ruminants

This study investigated the hypothesis that the use of different feeding levels in the vegetation promotes resource partitioning among browsing ungulate species in African savannas. Focal animal feeding observations, recorded on a real-time basis using computerized data-capture system, were conducted on giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus), kudu (Tragelaphus steosiceros Pallas), impala (Aepyceros melampus Lichtenstein) and steenbok […]

Giraffe feeding on Acacia flowers: predation or pollination?

Consumption of flowers by the following four browsing ruminant species was monitored for two years in a southern African savannah: giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros Pallas), impala (Aepyceros melampus Lichtenstein) and steenbok (Raphicerus campestris Thunberg). Flowers of Acacia nigrescens Oliver are an important food resource to giraffe in the late dry season. This […]


Introduction Flehmen is a behavioral pattern that has been observed in almost all species of ungulates and in some felids. An individual flehmens when it detects an interesting smell — urine, faeces, a female’s vulva or even a chemical substance such as ether or valerian (Schneider, 1930). McHugh (1958) for example reports that wild female […]