Sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female Rothschild’s giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi)

The application of real-time-B-mode ultrasonography to wild and zoo animal medicine has been shown to improve the understanding of reproductive physiology in many species. Ultrasound technology is especially helpful for monitoring urogenital health, which in turn has advantages for giraffe breeding and welfare in captivity. This study aimed to ultrasonographically describe the genital organs of […]

Urinary steroid evaluations to monitor ovarian function in exotic ungulates: II. Comparison between the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and the okapi (okapia johnstoni)

Ovarian activity in the female giraffe was evaluated during the nonfertile ovarian cycle and during the terminal stages of gestation. Progesterone metabolites, in the form of pregnanediol‐3‐glucuronide (PdG), were measured in daily random urine samples collected from four adult parous giraffes. The follicular phase averaged 4.0 ± 0.1 days in length (N = 12; range […]

The development of the reproductive organs of the male giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis

The reproductive organs of the male giraffe differ little in morphology and histology from those of other ungulates. There is some indication that gonadal hypertrophy occurs in late fetal life. Spermatogenesis begins at 3-4years of age and coincides with a rapid increase of testicular weight and seminiferous tubule diameter. In the fetal testis the main […]

Umbilical cord stump retention and age estimation of newborn giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

The umbilical cord stump is a conspicuous characteristic used to identify recently born giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (Foster & Dagg, 1972; Langman, 1977; Leuthold & Leuthold, 1978; Pratt & Anderson, 1979; Pellew, 1981; Dagg & Foster, 1982). However, there is surprising disagreement over the length of time that the umbilical stump remains attached, with reports varying […]

Some uterine parameters in antelopes and a giraffe

Uteri of 69 African antelopes and a giraffe were morphologically examined and numbers of caruncles and their rows in each horn were recorded. Antelopes of subfamilies Taurotraginae, Aepycerotinae, Antilopinae, and Alcelaphinae had about 50 to 100 caruncles arranged in four rows in each uterine horn. Hippotraginae had about 100 to 200 caruncles in six to […]