Limited introgression supports division of giraffe into four species

All giraffe (Giraffa) were previously assigned to a single species (G. camelopardalis) and nine subspecies. However, multi-locus analyses of all subspecies have shown that there are four genetically distinct clades and suggest four giraffe species. This conclusion might not be fully accepted due to limited data and lack of explicit gene flow analyses. Here, we […]

The effects of increased hay-to-grain ratio on behavior, metabolic health measures, and fecal bacterial communities in four Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo

We evaluated whether increasing the hay-to-grain ratio offered to Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and alter feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio and salivary insulin, and alter fecal bacterial community structure. Giraffe transitioned to a ∼90:10 hay-to-grain ratio in even increments […]

DNA metabarcoding illuminates dietary niche partitioning by African large herbivores

Niche partitioning facilitates species coexistence in a world of limited resources, thereby enriching biodiversity. For decades, biologists have sought to understand how diverse assemblages of large mammalian herbivores (LMH) partition food resources. Several complementary mechanisms have been identified, including differential consumption of grasses versus nongrasses and spatiotemporal stratification in use of different parts of the […]

Detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in South Africa

Papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). The virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. Histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected […]

Characterization of eight polymorphic loci for Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) using non-invasive genetic samples

We used Illumina sequencing to develop eight novel microsatellite loci for Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi), and screened them using fecal DNA. Genetic diversity was assessed for 40 individuals from the Katavi National Park/Rukwa Game Reserve ecosystem in Tanzania. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14 (mean = 6.2) and mean […]

Supplement on the paper of: Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe.

Brown et al. (pp. 63/64, if I counted correctly, – the page numbers on the PDF of the paper are “not for citation puposes”) suggest “that the giraffe might represent more than one species” and that their results and arguments “support viewing the giraffe as containing multiple distinct species rather than a single polymorphic form. […]

Equine Herpesvirus Type 9 in Giraffe with Encephalitis

Herpesviruses have been isolated from many mammals. Herpesvirus infection in natural hosts is often mild and is usually followed by a latent infection; however, cross-species herpesvirus infections cause severe and fatal diseases. These findings may explain why the giraffe had lesions while the zebras in the same enclosure did not. Outcome: The fact the zebras […]

Mitochondrial DNA variability in Giraffa camelopardalis: consequences for taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of giraffes in West and central Africa

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) still survives in four countries of West and central Africa. The populations of Niger and Cameroon are generally assigned to the subspecies peralta, but those of Chad and the Central African Republic are taxonomically problematic, as they are referred to as either peralta, or antiquorum, or congoensis. In this study, a […]