Origin of mean arterial and jugular venous blood pressures in giraffes

Using a mechanical model of the giraffe neck and head circulation consisting of rigid, ascending, 'carotid' limb, a 'cranial' circulation that could be rigid or collapsible, and a descending, 'jugular' limb that also could be rigid or collapsible, we have analyzed the origin of the high arterial and venous pressures in giraffe, and whether blood flow is assisted by a siphon. When the tubes were rigid and the 'jugular' limb exit was lower than the 'carotid' limb entrance a siphon operated, 'carotid' hydrostatic pressures became more negative, and flow was 3.3 l min^-1 but ceased when the 'cranial' and 'jugular' limbs were collapsible or when the 'jugular' limb was opened to the atmosphere. Pumping water through the model produced positive pressured in the 'carotid' limb similar to those found in giraffe. Applying external 'tissue' pressure to the 'jugular' tube during pump flow produced the typical pressures found in the jugular vein in giraffe. Constriction of the lowest, 'jugular' cuff, portion of the 'jugular' limb showed that the cuff may augment the orthostatic reflex during head raising. Except when all tubes were rigid, pressures were unaffected by the siphon.

We conclude that the mean arterial blood pressure in giraffes is a consequence of the hydrostatic pressure generated by the column of blood in the neck, that tissue pressure around the collapsible jugular vein produces the known jugular pressures, and that a siphon does not assist through the cranial circulation.

Last Updated
January 27, 2021
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