Mammalian milk/colostrum usually contains oligosaccharides along with the predominant disaccharide lactose. It has been found that the number and identity of these milk oligosaccharides varies among mammalian species. Oligosaccharides predominate over lactose in the milk/colostrum of Arctoidea species (Carnivora), whereas lactose predominates over milk oligosaccharides in Artiodactyla including cow, sheep, goat, camel, reindeer and pig. To clarify whether heterogeneity of a variety of milk oligosaccharides is found within other species of Artiodactyla, they were studied in the milk of giraffe, sitatunga, deer and water buffalo. The following oligosaccharides were found: Neu5Ac(α2–3)[GalNAc(β1–4)]Gal(β1–4)Glc (GM2 tetrasaccharide), and Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (isoglobotriose) in giraffe milk; Neu5Ac(α2–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (3’-SL), Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal(β1–4)Glc (6’-SL), Gal(α1–4)Gal(β1–4)Glc (globotriose) and isoglobotriose in sitatunga colostrum; Gal(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (3′-GL), Gal(β1–6)Gal(β1–4)Glc (6′-GL), isoglobotriose, Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (lacto-N-neotetraose, LNnT), Gal(β1–4)Glc-3’-O-SO3 (3’-O-lactose sulphate) in deer milk; 3′-GL, isoglobotriose and Gal(β1–3)Gal(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (3′,3″-digalactosyllactose, DGL) in water buffalo colostrum. Thus it was shown that the milk oligosaccharides are heterogeneous among these Artiodactyla species.