A model for time-dependent flow in (giraffe jugular) veins: uniform tube properties

Computations are reported for a one-dimensional model of time-dependent flow in collapsible tubes representing long mammalian veins. The tubes are taken to have uniform intrinsic properties and we concentrate on the effect of longitudinal gravity. The main application is to the jugular vein of the upright giraffe, with given inflow rate from the head, a given pressure, slightly above the external, atmospheric pressure, at the downstream (vena caval) end, and a variety of initial conditions. We show that: (i) previously calculated steady flows are the long time limits of unsteady computations, although only after a considerable time in which slowly-decaying waves and elastic jumps propagate up and down, (ii) steady flows are indeed not found when the steady-flow analysis shown them not to exist, although the consequent unsteadiness is of such small amplitude as to be practically unimportant, (iii) the time taken for the flow to become steady when the neck is raised from the horizontal or the head-down position can be several seconds longer than the neck-raising time itself (3-7 s). We also find that roll-waves do not develop despite having been previously predicted for long collapsible tubes. Further application is made to the effect of postural changes o human neck and leg veins.

Publish DateApril 15, 2020
Last UpdatedJanuary 26, 2021
Size1.99 MB