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Comparison of comprehensive health score in North American housed giraffe and free-ranging giraffe from South Africa

As in humans, stress is evident in many animal species and has been correlated to disease prevalence; yet a value for reliable quantification of chronic stress is unestablished. During stressful events, allostasis, an adaptive process, is initiated by physiologic systems to maintain or reestablish homeostasis to protect an organism’s viability. Over time, the acclimation to frequent stress causes systematic dysregulation, leading to the phenomena of increased allostatic load. In recent studies, allostatic load has been assessed in animal species via

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The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya

We compile over 270 wildlife counts of Kenya’s wildlife populations conducted over the last 30 years to compare trends in national parks and reserves with adjacent ecosystems and country-wide trends. The study shows the importance of discriminating human-induced changes from natural population oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors. National park and reserve populations have declines sharply over the last 30 years, at a rate similar to non-protected areas and country-wide trends. The protected area losses reflect in part their

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Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia

Zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent zoonotic infections reported in Namibia between

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Modelling and predicting mammalian wildlife abundance and distribution in semi-arid Gonarezhou National Park, south eastern Zimbabwe

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to model and predict mammalian herbivore species abundance in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), south eastern Zimbabwe. The study also aims to determine and evaluate the distribution-abundance patterns in GNP. Design/methodology/approach – Using aerial survey data from 1980 to 2016, the authors use the rank abundance model to determine the abundance of mammalian herbivores in GNP. Regression analysis is used to show the mammalian herbivore species distribution-abundance relationship. Findings – The findings point

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The landscape configuration and lethality of snare poaching of sympatric guilds of large carnivores and ungulates

Poaching of wildlife presents one of the biggest conservation challenges in the 21st century. Snaring is one of the primary means of capturing target animals. To prioritise interventions intending to reduce snaring, we describe an approach for quantifying the configuration and lethality of snares. We conducted transect surveys in Murchison Falls National Park. All the snares that we recovered were made of wire with the majority (81.0%, n = 546 of 674) deriving from vehicle tire wire. The density of

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Systematic aerial sample survey of Laikipia county, April 2016 Preliminary Report

A systematic aerial sample survey of Laikipia County (9666km2) was carried out in April 2016 by Kenya’s Directorate of Resource Survey and Remote Sensing survey teams in partnership with Laikipia Wildlife Forum and Mpala Research Centre, with funds from US AID. This report presents the preliminary results as a basis for use by management and for discussion on further analysis and application. The Laikipia upland plateau between Mount Kenya (5199m) and the Aberdare highlands (3999m) is an important area for

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Studies of coprophilous ascomycetes in Kenya: Coprophilous Schizothecium from wildlife dung

Schizothecium encompasses species whose morphological features make them easily confused with Podospora and Cercophora. This study, carried out between September 2008 and October 2010, set out to characterize Schizothecium species from wildlife dung and determine their ecological attributes. Dung from Cape buffalo, zebra, giraffe, hippopotamus, impala, Jackson’s hartebeest, sable antelope and waterbuck was incubated in a moist chamber culture. Morphological features of sporulating ascomycetes were used to characterize and identify the species. Five species, Schizothecium conicum, S. curvuloides var. curvuloides,

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Comparison of aerial counts with ground counts for large African herbivores

1. Over the past 50 years, aerial counts have been widely used in African wildlife management; however, the accuracy of the resulting estimates has rarely been questioned. The reliability of aerial counts of large African herbivores was examined by comparing the results of a series of systematic aerial sample counts with those from a series of line transect foot counts conducted in the Lupande Game Management Area in Zambia. 2. For most large herbivore species, the estimates from the aerial

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Theileria spp. in free ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Zambia

Theileria parasites were detected in five apparently healthy free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) captured for translocation on a game ranch located approximately 60 km south west of Lusaka. Giemsa-stained blood smears examined under a light microscope showed characteristic oval and rod shaped intra-erythrocytic piroplasms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products targeted on the 18S rRNA gene showed characteristic bands of Theileria spp. The average number of infected blood cells per field examined by light microscopy was estimated at 48.6% (n=50,

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Complementary management of wildlife and livestock in West Africa – Utopia or development perspective?

Income from game viewing and trophy hunting is increasing in eastern and southern areas, game populations are increasing in some countries and programmes like CAMPFIRE have shown the potentials for local communities to benefit from these trends and National Parks. In West Africa, by contrast, there has been a sharp decline in wildlife populations and nature conservation and rural development are still antagonists. In 1999 GTZ started a special project on complementary management of wildlife and livestock in West Africa

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