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Some New Remains of Middle Miocene Mammals from the Chinji Formation, Northern Pakistan

New mammalian material excluding proboscideans described from four main fossil sites of the Chinji Formation, northern Pakistan, allow identifying Miotragocerus gluten, Tragoportax cf. punjabicus, Elachistoceras sp., Helicoportax sp., Boselaphini sp. indet., Gazella sp., Giraffokeryx punjabiensis, Giraffa priscilla, Dorcatherium minus, Microbunodon silistrensis, Merycopotamus nanus, Listriodon pentapotamiae, Conohyus sindiensis, Gaindatherium browni and Hespanotherium matritense. The tooth positions of all the fifteen species are documented. The findings enlarge our knowledge on the anatomic features of the described species. Quantitatively, the bovid taxa are

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A literature review of horn and horn-like structures in vertebrates to correlate placement to function, behavior, and niche.

In this paper, the true horns of bovids are compared to the many horn-like structures found throughout the animal kingdom. Literary sources were reviewed for a variety of horn-like structures. The review was limited to extinct and extant terrestrial vertebrates. 3D models of these organisms’ skulls and “horns” were created or acquired and 3D printed at the same scale to illustrate their differences and similarities and to analysis of their comparative size easier between large and small genera.

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New Fossils of Giraffokeryx (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Giraffidae) from Chinji Formation, Pakistan

This paper describes new fossils of Giraffokeryx originating from the Chinji Formation of northern Pakistan. The fossils, representing worth describing hemimandibles, are collected from the Middle Miocene outcrops of the Chakwal district, Punjab, Pakistan. A detailed description of the newly discovered fossils is being provided. The Chinji sample adds new information on the anatomical morphology of Giraffokeryx and conforms to an early distribution of the genus in the Middle Miocene of the Siwaliks.

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Giraffokeryx (Artiodactyla: Mammalia) Remains From the Lower Siwaliks of Pakistan

Giraffokeryx is represented in the middle Miocene vertebrate assemblage from the Chinji Formation by 13 remains. The material comprises predominantly isolated teeth, and a few fragments of maxilla and mandible. The well preserved upper and lower dentition allows recognizing the presence of Giraffokeryx cf. punjabiensis in the Chinji Formation of the Lower Siwaliks. A detailed description of the fossils and their taxonomic classification is being provided. The validity of the new species Giraffokeryx chinjiensis Sarwar, 1990 is discussed and the

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