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Browse silage as potential feed for captive wild ungulates in southern Africa: A review

The objective of the review was to assess the potential of indigenous browse trees as sustainable feed supplement in the form of silage for captive wild ungulates. Several attempts to use silage as feed in zoos in temperate regions have been conducted with success. Information on silage from the indigenous browse trees preferred by wild ungulates in southern Africa is scanty. The use of silage from the browse trees is of interest as it has potential to reduce or replace

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True Ungulates From the Nagri Type Locality (Late Miocene), Northern Pakistan

The early Late Miocene type locality of the Nagri Formation from the Indo-Siwaliks has yielded remains of the true ungulates that are today extinct to the south Asian biogeographic realm. Thirteen species including Brachypotherium, Hipparion, Listriodon and the bovids of the true ungulates from the village Sethi Nagri, district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, are recognized, described and discussed in details. The tooth positions of all thirteen species are documented. Quantitatively, the taxa of the bovids are the most predominant. But Brachypotherium,

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History and development of research on wildlife parasites in southern Africa, with emphasis on terrestrial mammals, especially ungulates

The history of wildlife parasitology in South Africa, and to some extent southern Africa, is reviewed, giving a brief overview of the early years and following its development from the founding of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in 1908 until the turn of the century. An emphasis is placed on game species. The main findings on protozoan parasites, including those of carnivores, are presented, starting in the 1890s and leading up to the first decade of the 21st century. Important developments

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Long-term surveys of age structure in 13 ungulate and one ostrich species in the Serengeti, 1926–2018

The Serengeti ecosystem spans an extensive network of protected areas in Tanzania, eastern Africa, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is home to some of the largest animal migrations on the planet. Here, we describe a dataset consisting of the sample counts of three age classes (infant, juvenile and adult) of 13 ungulate and one ostrich species. Sample counts were tallied visually from the ground, or, in some instances, aerial photographs, during a period extending from 1926 to 2018.

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Does tooth wear influence ageing? A comparative study across large herbivores

We test whether the intensity of tooth wear influences the strength of actuarial senescence across species of large herbivores. We collected from the literature data on tooth wear in the wild (measured as the slope of the regression of log-transformed M1 crown height on age), longevity (measured as the age at which 90% of individuals are dead) and two metrics of actuarial senescence in captive populations (rate of senescence between 6 and 12 years of age and Gompertz rate of

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Evaluating the accuracy of some commonly used game-counting methods

The accuracy of game counts on an eastern Transvaal Lowveld game ranch was examined. A drive count was used to produce control estimates of actual population sizes. A helicopter count was more accurate than one from a fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty-four hour waterhole counts were relatively inaccurate. Line transect counts were relatively accurate when a fixed strip width equal to the mean visibility index of the vegetation was used, and when the population estimate was based on the perpendicular sighting distance.

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Host preference of the Yellow-billed Oxpecker Buphagus africanus in the Rhodes Matopos National Park, Rhodesia

Records were kept from May 1977 to April 1978 of Yellow-billed Oxpeckers Buphagus africanus and ungulates seen in the Whovi Wild Area of the Rhodes Matopos National Park. Host preference was determined by recording when oxpeckers were not in attendance. A distinct selection was shown for certain ungulate species, the order of preference being buffalo, white rhino, eland, zebra, giraffe, sable, wildebeest, impala and warthog. Ungulates apparently not utilized at all included waterbuck, duiker, steenbok, reedbuck, tsessebe and klipspringer.

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Mesowear study of ungulates from the early Pleistocene site of ‘Ubeidiya (Israel) and the implications for early Homo dispersal from Africa

An ongoing question in Anthropology and Archaeology focuses on the role of climate change in human evolution and particularly in the dispersal of hominins out of Africa. One of the main hypothesis posits that early Pleistocene sites were open grassland habitats and that early Homo differentially inhabited such environments. Testing the environmental hypothesis requires robust paleoecological reconstructions of early Pleistocene ‘Out of Africa’ sites. The early Pleistocene site of ‘Ubeidiya, central Jordan Valley, Israel, provides an excellent case study to

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Detection probabilities of ungulates in the eastern Swaziland lowveld

The management of large ungulates in Southern Africa necessitates reliable monitoring programmes to direct management action. Monitoring programmes for large ungulates typically rely on spotlight survey methods, but do not address variation in detection rates between surveys or observers. In 2009, we used a multiple observer survey technique to estimate detection probabilities for large ungulates in lowveld savanna habitats in Swaziland. Spotlight detection probabilities for all ungulates ranged between 0.22 and 0.57. Species-specific spotlight detection rates for the two most

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Two quantitative methods of analysing ungulate habitat data

Ungulate habitat data for 10 ungulate types that use the grasslands of Jack Scott Nature Reserve were quantitatively analysed using simultaneous confidence intervals and detrended correspondence analysis. The first method is hypothesis-testing whereas the second method is hypothesis-generating. The two methods complemented each other and both revealed the same major habitat selection patterns.

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