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Taxonomy and Translocations of African Mammals: A Plea for a Cautionary Approach

Ecotourism can fuel an important source of financial income for African countries and can therefore help biodiversity policies in the continent. Translocations can be a powerful tool to spread economic benefits among countries and communities; yet, to be positive for biodiversity conservation, they require a basic knowledge of conservation units through appropriate taxonomic research. This is not always the case, as taxonomy was considered an outdated discipline for almost a century, and some plurality in taxonomic approaches is incorrectly considered

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Giraffe taxonomy, geographic distribution and conservation

The conservation implications of taxonomic pedigrees and geographic distributions are substantial because the two entities are inseparable when the goal is saving bio- diversity and ecosystems. Yet, neither Latin nomenclature nor animal movement patterns are static over time because modifications result as more data are collected. Scientists have recently reassessed both the taxonomy and geographic range of giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis. Evidence has been presented that giraffes ought to be classified into anywhere from one to nine species, and that their

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Giraffa camelopardalis, Giraffe Assessment by: Muller, Z. et al.

Taxonomic Notes: The IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group (GOSG) currently recognizes a single species, Giraffa camelopardalis. Nine subspecies of Giraffes are currently recognized (Dagg 2014), although some authorities dispute this taxonomic classification (e.g., Groves and Grubb 2011). Several subpopulations of Giraffe, resident in northern Botswana, northwest Zimbabwe, northeastern Namibia and southwestern Zambia, are potentially either G. c. angolensis, or G. c. giraffa but the continued accumulation of information indicates that a future reassessment might be in order. Until

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Computer-aided photographic pelage pattern analysis of Giraffa camelopardalis (Artiodactyla:Girrafidae)

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is one of the most recognisable animal species on earth. Yet hunting and habitat loss and fragmentation have led to severe, but until recently largely unnoticed, declines of giraffe populations all over Africa. The IUCN recognised one single species with nine subspecies and changed the status from ‘Least Concern’ to ‘Vulnerable’ in 2016. However, the number of giraffe species and its subspecies has been a topic of ongoing discussion for more than a century. To date,

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How many species of giraffe are there?

In a recent paper in Current Biology, Fennessy and colleagues [1] conclude that there are four species of giraffe and that their numbers are declining in Africa. Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are presently classifi ed as one species, with nine subspecies, which are considered ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List [2]. The present consensus of one species divided into nine subspecies has previously been questioned (Supplemental information), and Fennessy and colleagues [1] provide another viewpoint on giraffe taxonomy. The fundamental reason

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Response to “How many species of giraffe are there?”

It is not unexpected that a proposal, such as ours [1], of four new mammalian species stirs up controversy, as evident in the correspondence by Bercovitch et al. [2]. We appreciate that their concerns are unrelated to the quality of the genetic data, the methodological approach or analyses, but are focused on the interpretation. Thus, we provided an analysis of giraffe speciation based on genomic sequence data, and not just “another viewpoint on giraffe taxonomy” [2]. We maintain our perspective

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The genetic status of the introduced giraffe population in Central South Africa

There has been no reliable historical evidence of giraffe occurring naturally in the Free State Province in Central South Africa (Dagg 1962; Deacon & Parker 2016; Sydney 1965). Although Lynch (1983) mentioned the possibility of the natural distribution of giraffe in the East and Western Free State, there is no concrete evidence that giraffe existed earlier than this in the Free State (Ansell 1968). According to Griesel (1961), Hirst (1966), Lambrechts (1974) and Terblanche and Kok (1995), translocations of the

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The Mammals of Nigeria

Distribution: scattered localities in northern Guinea, Sudan, and Sahel savanna zones; not recorded south of the Niger-Benue rivers in Nigeria (Happold 1969, 1978b) (Map 98). Localities: Benue-Pai river region (Lewis 1955); Chingurme-Duguma GR, Kambari GR (Hall 197 6); Falgoro GR (Henshaw and Child 1972); Lame GR (Hall 1976); Sambisa GR (Hall 1976). Old localities not listed (see Status).

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A comparative approach for species delimitation based on multiple methods of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis: A case study of the genus Giraffa (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla)

Molecular data are now commonly used in taxonomy for delimiting cryptic species. In the case of giraffes, which were treated as a single species (Giraffa camelopardalis) during half of a century, several molecular studies have suggested a splitting into four to seven species, but the criteria applied for taxonomic delimitation were not fully described. In this study, we have analysed all multi-locus DNA sequences available for giraffes using multispecies coalescent (MSC: *BEAST, BPP and STACEY), population genetic (STRUCTURE, allelic networks,

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Giraffe Husbandry Manual

Husbandry manuals serve as a source of reference on the biology, maintenance, housing, health, behaviour, diet, breeding, restrain and transporting of animals held in captivity. They act as a major source of information for the species. The present information and experiences (both published and unpublished) together so that the knowledge of that particular species can be passed on, which in turn allows for techniques to develop rather than be reinvented resulting in the overall improvement in the husbandry of that

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