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Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation Status of Masai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania

The focus of this thesis is on the behaviour, ecology and conservation of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania. Giraffes are the most elegant, conspicuous and tallest animals of the African savannah. Giraffes prefer savannah and are responsible for the architectural beauty of trees through browsing. Giraffes are social but are non territorial because individuals within a group are in constant change. Females are more often in mixed herds with calves, whereas males maintain a primarily solitary life. Giraffes

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Faecal Glucocorticoids Metabolite Response in Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Relation to Protected Area Management Objectives in Tanzania

The increase in the human population and the demand for natural resources and recreational activities poses insurmountable threats to the welfare and survival of wildlife. Human disturbance negatively impacts wildlife populations. A prospective way of determining wildlife welfare is to assess stress. To manage and conserve giraffes, it is vital to understand their stress factors and their responses to stressors. This study used a non-invasive (faecal collection) technique to evaluate the Faecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite (FGM) levels of giraffes depending on

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Brief chapter summaries of ‘Stereotypic Animal Behaviour – Fundamentals and Applications for Welfare’ (2nd ed.)

Repetitive, abnormal behaviour patterns are performed by tens, perhaps hundreds, of millions of animals worldwide: animals that live on farms and in laboratory animal facilities, stables, kennels, zoos, even in our homes. Our introductory chapter reviews the extent of research into this ‘stereotypic behaviour’ – traditionally defined as ‘repetitive, unvarying, with no obvious goal or function’ – since the book’s first edition was published in 1993. We illustrate the growing number of papers on captive animals, contrasting them with the

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The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes

One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in

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