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Minimizing predation risk in a landscape of multiple predators: effects on the spatial distribution of African ungulates

Studies that focus on single predator–prey interactions can be inadequate for understanding antipredator responses in multi-predator systems. Yet there is still a general lack of information about the strategies of prey to minimize predation risk from multiple predators at the landscape level. Here we examined the distribution of seven African ungulate species in the fenced Karongwe Game Reserve (KGR), South Africa, as a function of predation risk from all large carnivore species (lion, leopard, cheetah, African wild dog, and spotted

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Modeling the dynamics of migrations for large herbivore populations in the Amboseli National Park, Kenya

The spread of human activity, settlement and land fragmentation threatens the migrations of large migratory ungulates in Africa. Modelling the migrations gives conservationists a tool for building scenarios of the threats and containment options. We propose a simple spatially explicit mathematical model of ungulate migrations based on the seasonal distribution of vegetation quantity and quality and allometric models of diet. We use the seasonal movements of selected migrants in relation to vegetation in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya. Parameters estimation was

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