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Sparring dynamics and individual laterality in male South African giraffes

Sparring by male giraffes has been commonly reported since its first description in 1958 and is believed to play a role in establishing male dominance hierarchies. However, despite being often documented, quantitative investigations of sparring behaviour are currently lacking. Here, we investigate the factors affecting the frequency, duration and intensity of sparring bouts in a population of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa living on a private fenced reserve in Limpopo, South Africa. We show that sparring bouts were most frequently observed

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Diet and seasonal dispersal of extralimital giraffe at Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, Little Karoo, South Africa

South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) have been introduced as an extralimital species to private farms in the Little Karoo on the basis of economic sustainability, and the need to create a competitive tourism product. However, little is known about the medium- to long-term impacts and ecological sustainability of such introductions. The diet of a population of giraffe on Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, near the town of Ladismith, was assessed via direct observations between January and October 2014, in order to

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Testicular disorder of sexual development with cryptorchidism, penile hypoplasia and hypospadias in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa)

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) in wild mammals are rarely described. A male South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was identified with bilateral cryptorchidism. The testes were intra-abdominal, smaller and less ovoid than in normal male giraffes. The right testis was situated more cranially than the left and connected to a longer deferent duct with normal ampullae. One distended vesicular gland filled with mucoid material was identified. A short penis, situated in the perineal area, was directed caudally and presented

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Species assignment and conservation genetics of giraffe in the Republic of Malawi

Historically, giraffe have been translocated across Africa to supplement extant populations, reintroduce extinct populations or to establish new populations, often for conservation and tourism. Such faunal relocations were often carried out disregarding taxonomic affiliation. Today, the small giraffe populations in the Republic of Malawi are assumed to consist of South African giraffe (Giraffa giraffa giraffa), which have likely descended from five individuals translocated from Imire Game Park (Zimbabwe) to Nyala Game Park (Malawi) in 1993. However, during the last 25

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A conservation assessment of Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa

Taxonomic notes: Currently, nine subspecies classifications have been proposed for Giraffe (Ansell 1972; Dagg & Foster 1982; Kingdon 1997; East 1999; Grubb 2005; Ciofolo & Pendu 2013). There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the geographic and taxonomic limits of all described subspecies (Fennessy et al. 2013). Furthermore, recent genetic work suggests that several subspecies may even represent distinct species (Brown et al. 2007). Globally, only the forms G. c. peralta from West Africa, which recent genetic evidence has confirmed is indeed

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Mitochondrial sequences reveal a clear separation between Angolan and South African giraffe along a cryptic rift valley

Background: The current taxonomy of the African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is primarily based on pelage pattern and geographic distribution, and nine subspecies are currently recognized. Although genetic studies have been conducted, their resolution is low, mainly due to limited sampling. Detailed knowledge about the genetic variation and phylogeography of the South African giraffe (G. c. giraffa) and the Angolan giraffe (G. c. angolensis) is lacking. We investigate genetic variation among giraffe matrilines by increased sampling, with a focus on giraffe

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