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The dissociation of the fluid and particle phase in the forestomach as a physiological characteristic of large grazing ruminants: an evaluation of available, comparable ruminant passage data

Whether differences in digestive physiology exist between different ruminant feeding types has been an ongoing debate. In this regard, potential differences in ingesta retention have been understood to be of particular importance. We analyzed a data pool in which only mean retention time (MRT) data for the ruminoreticulum (RR) were collated that were obtained using comparable techniques with either chromium or cobalt EDTA as a fluid marker and/or with chromium-mordanted fiber of less than 2 mm in size as a

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Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function

The reticulum is the second part of the ruminant forestomach, located between the rumen and the omasum and characterized by honeycomb-like internal mucosa. With its fluid contents, it plays a decisive role in particle separation. Differences among species have been linked to their feeding style. We investigated whether reticulum size (absolute and in relation to rumen size) and size of the crests that form the mucosal honeycomb pattern differ among over 60 ruminant species of various body sizes and feeding

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The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) rumen microbiome

Recent studies have shown that wild ruminants are sources of previously undescribed microorganisms, knowledge of which can improve our understanding of the complex microbial interactions in the foregut. Here, we investigated the microbial community of seven wild-caught giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), three of which were fed natural browse and four were fed Boskos pellets, leafy alfalfa hay, and cut savanna browse, by characterizing the 16S rRNA gene diversity using 454 FLX high-throughput sequencing. The microbial community composition varied according to diet,

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Influence of Diet on the Rumen Protozoal Fauna of Indigenous African Wild Ruminants

A study was carried out to determine if the protozoal fauna of indigenous African wild ruminants was different from that found in their domestic counterparts and if the animal’s diet influenced the number and types of protozoa. Samples of rumen contents were collected in 1997 and 2001 from various indigenous African wild ruminants in Kenya. All three ruminant feeding types were sampled: browsers or concentrate selectors (giraffe and Guenther’s dik-dik); intermediate or adaptable mixed feeders (Impala, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle

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Seasonal chemical composition of the diet of Transvaal lowveld giraffe

Rumen contents of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) were collected over a 1-year period in the eastern Transvaal lowveld and crude protein, ether extract (fat), crude fibre, ash and gross energy content were determined. Variations in crude protein, ash and gross energy content of the diet could be related to changes in the composition of the diet of the giraffe and to seasonal phonological changes of the vegetation. There was no evident correlation for crude fibre or fat, but this could have

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