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The ecology of the desert-dwelling elephants, black rhinoceroses and giraffe of western Kaokoland and Damaraland, South-West Africa

In the western desert regions of Kaokoland and Damaraland in S.W.A. elephants, black rhinoceroses and giraffes survive under environmental conditions atypical elsewhere for them. These animals occupy a seemingly inhospitable desert habitat, are locally endangered and occur in small numbers. The first priority of this study is directed at the acquisition of the relevant data necessary for formulating those management and conservation strategies which will ensure the survival of these wildlife populations. Secondly, this study also aims at establishing whether

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Behavioral ecology in managed reserves: gender-based asymmetries in interspecific dominance in African elephants and rhinos

As large-bodied mammals become restricted to progressively smaller fragments of former habitat, competitive interactions and interspecies aggression are likely to intensify. Data on the outcomes of 159 encounters between endangered African pachyderms revealed that: (1) female elephants (Loxodonta africana) dominated both sexes of black rhinos (Diceros bicornis); and (2) rhino males but not females displaced elephant bulls. The results of an additional 127 interactions involving pacyderms and 12 additional mammals ranging in size from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to giraffe (Giraffa

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Feasibility of characterizing reproductive events in large nondomestic species by transrectal ultrasonic imaging

The feasibility of using transrectal ultrasonography for imaging the in situ morphology of the reproductive tract of females of several large nondomestic and endangered species was studied. Two black (Diceros bicornis) and 1 white (Diceros simus) rhinoceros, 2 Asian (Elaphus maximus) and 2 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants, 4 banteng (Bos javanicus), 1 gaur (Bos taurus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), and 1 bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) were examined. Real-time ultrasonic images were obtained for the following structures: 1) rhinoceros—corpus luteum, ovarian

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