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Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants

Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen

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Influence of Diet on the Rumen Protozoal Fauna of Indigenous African Wild Ruminants

A study was carried out to determine if the protozoal fauna of indigenous African wild ruminants was different from that found in their domestic counterparts and if the animal’s diet influenced the number and types of protozoa. Samples of rumen contents were collected in 1997 and 2001 from various indigenous African wild ruminants in Kenya. All three ruminant feeding types were sampled: browsers or concentrate selectors (giraffe and Guenther’s dik-dik); intermediate or adaptable mixed feeders (Impala, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle

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