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Distribution and prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of wild animals in South Africa: A systematic review

Ticks are significant ectoparasites of animals and humans. Published data indicate that most vectors that transmit livestock and human pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa, are native to the region and originate from wild animals. Currently, there is a paucity of information on the role of wild animals on the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in South Africa. This systematic review focuses on the distribution of ticks and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in different wild animals in South Africa to identify potential

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Prevalence and histopathological characterization of Masai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) skin disease in Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, Northern Tanzania

Background: Masai Giraffes have declined dramatically in recent decades due to loss of habitat and illegal hunting. Hence, it is critically important that the epidemiology and etiology of so-called giraffe skin disease (GSD) is understood well. Aim: To assess the prevalence and histopathological characteristics of GSD in the Tarangire-Manyara Ecosystem (TME), northern Tanzania. Methods: The study used road transects to gather field information on GSD. Eighty-four giraffes were sighted by systematic random sampling in the six study sites. Examination of

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Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behavior?

This paper summarises recent findings on the causation of stereotypic behaviours and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs) in captive animals: primarily motivational frustration and/or brain dysfunction, with possible contributory roles also being played by habit-formation and ‘coping’ effects. We then review the extent to which ARBs occur in zoos and similar, estimating that at least 10 000 captive wild animals are affected worldwide. We argue for ‘zero tolerance’ of such ARBs, because stress and poor welfare raise ethical issues, while

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Internal parasites of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from Etosha National Park, Namibia

During three seasonal periods, parasitological samples were collected from six giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. The helminths recovered included Parabronema skrjabini, Skrjabinema spp., Haemonchus mitchelli and Echinococcus sp. larvae; Cytauxzoon sp. was the only hematozoan found. The low mean abundances of all helminths which ranged from 18 to 531 may be attributed to the low rainfall of this region or because the giraffe is not a preferred host for these species of helminths.

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Soil correlates and mortality from Giraffe Skin Disease in Tanzania

Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania, East Africa. We examined soil correlates of prevalence of GSD from 951 giraffe in 14 sites in Tanzania, and estimated mortality using 3 yr of longitudinal mark–recapture data from 382 giraffe with and without GSD lesions, in Tarangire National Park (TNP). Spatial variation in GSD prevalence was best explained by soil fertility, measured as cation exchange

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