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Feeding behaviour of lions (Panthera leo) on a small reserve

The prey selection and predatory behaviour of a single pride of lions (Panthera leo) was studied in the 8500 ha Karongwe Game Reserve from 1999–2005. The study focused on the difference between prey selection in the first three years when a two-male coalition was present with a similar period thereafter when one of the males was removed and subadult males dispersed from the pride. A total of 662 kills were recorded, with blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), waterbuck

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The applicability of lion prey selection models to smaller game reserves in South Africa

Prey selection by lions (Panthera leo) reintroduced into small game reserves (typically <1000 km2) in South Africa was compared with results from larger (more naturally functioning) protected areas. Prey selection was used to calculate mean preference indices, and where sample size allowed, tested for significance of preference, as well as for comparisons with current estimates in the literature. The model by Hayward & Kerley (2005) was found to be 85% accurate, suggesting it is well suited as a predictive tool

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Structure of herd in giraffe: Developmental changes of social relationship in calves

In the present study, I aim to clarify social structure and differences of social interaction among different aged giraffe’s (Giraffa Camelopardelis) in Katavi National Park, Tanzania. I recorded giraffe’s sex, herd size and individual identify by pattern of marking on their necks. I estimated age on the basis of body size. The study about social structure was conducted around HQ and IKUU. As a result, I observed more calves around HQ than IKUU. A previous study revealed that predation pressure

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Population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya

Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i) to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild’s giraffes in Kenya, ii) to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii) to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv)

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The role of nursery group guardian is not shared equally by female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

Giraffe usually give birth to a single calf throughout the year, although some locations report that conceptions are more likely during the wet season (Shorrocks, 2016). Several mother‐calf pairs will gather to form a nursery group in which all calves and their mothers are all together (Foster & Dagg, 1972; Langman, 1977). In general, lactating females spend more time foraging or drinking than nonlactating females (Fischhoff et al., 2007; Hamel & Côté, 2008). Hence, sometimes females in a nursery group

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Group sizes of giraffes in Kenya: the influence of habitat, predation and the age and sex of individuals

Giraffe group sizes appear to vary in response to localized ecological and environmental factors, but there has been little investigation of how social factors or predation risk affect group size in giraffes. We studied two adjacent, enclosed populations of Rothschild’s giraffes in Kenya, and used 591 records of groups to determine the relative influence of a series of variables on group size. One population was free from any risk of predation, while the other area contained a high density of

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Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology: Energetic and social constraints

Sex ratios of giraffe groups differ in different habitats, with open vegetation having female‐biased groups, and tall, thick vegetation having male‐biased groups. On a ranch in south‐central Kenya, we quantified habitat differences of male and female giraffe groups and showed that the preference for open habitats by female groups was limited to groups with young. We suggest that this difference is due to the avoidance of predators of young giraffes. We also showed that rates of giraffe feeding peaked at

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Comparative changes in adult vs. juvenile survival affecting population trends of African ungulates

Among large mammalian herbivores, juvenile survival tends to vary widely and may thus have a greater influence on population dynamics than the relatively constant survival rates typical of adults. However, previous studies yielding stage-specific survival rates have been mostly on temperate zone ungulates and in environments lacking large predators. Annual censuses coupled with assessments of population structure enabled annual survival rates to be estimated for the juvenile, yearling and adult segments of nine ungulate species in South Africa’s Kruger National

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Implications of closed ecosystem conservation management: the decline of Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya

Giraffe were historically free-ranging across most of sub-Saharan Africa but are now most often confined to national parks, conservation areas, or private ranches. Five viable populations of Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) remain in protected areas in Kenya and Uganda. The viable population in Uganda is Murchison Falls National Park and the four populations in Kenya are Lake Nakuru National Park (LNNP), Ruma National Park, Giraffe Manor, and Mwea Natural Reserve. The Kenya Wildlife Service queried a rapid decline in

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