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Data prompting evaluation of captive giraffe feed selection were obtained from a modified reversal study investigating the effects of dietary physical form and carbohydrate profile. Six non-lactating adult female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) were used in seven 21-day periods. Supplements were: an experimental non-pelleted browser supplement (EF) and a mixture of 75% Mazuri Browser Breeder (PMI Nutrition International, LLC, Brentwood, MO) and 25% Omelene 200 (Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis, MO) (GF). Individually housed giraffe were offered ad libitum alfalfa
Giraffe in the wild are in ongoing decline because of poaching and habitat loss and fragmentation, and were recently assessed as ‘‘vulnerable’’ on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List of Threatened Species. Captive breeding and saving each individual are therefore becoming more important to save this species from extinction. This paper describes the husbandry and diets of successfully hand-reared Rothschild’s giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi; n = 3) and reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata; n = 2).
It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted.
The nutrient content of giraffe diets has not been well established. Many diets are lacking or have excessive amounts of protein, and protein is a good indicator of overall nutrient content. Hay and alfalfa are not ideal food items, and browse or leaves are the natural food choice for wild giraffe. In climates that experience seasons, browse is not always readily available, and must be frozen to be fed over the winter months. It was not known if freezing had
On May 25, 2005, 14 people interested in giraffe nutrition and health, convened at Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago for a two-day workshop. The participants consisted of university and USDA ruminant nutrition researchers, zoo nutritionists, and veterinarians in addition to the giraffe nutrition and veterinary advisors and the PMP coordinator for giraffe. Captive giraffe have a specific set of maladies that may be related to basic nutritional inadequacies. Peracute mortality (Fowler, 1978; Fowler and Boever 1986; Junge and Bradley, 1993),
Management guidelines for the welfare of zoo animals – GIRAFFE.
Giraffes have been kept in captive situations for hundreds of years. Nevertheless, it would be very difficult to describe a singular optimal situation for keeping giraffe, outside of their natural environment. Much of the information contained within will illustrate multiple situations where giraffe were managed successfully, to allow the reader to make husbandry decisions that will best suit their individual facilities and create the most suitable program for their herd. The information found within this manual should be used as
In the last decade, numerous publications have been written with regard to the nutrition of giraffe and other ruminant browsers maintained in zoological institutions, inspired by several health problems suspected to have a nutritional origin. Thus, reports of rumen acidosis, chronic wasting, peracute mortality syndrome, energy malnutrition, hoof disease, inverse serum calcium and phosphorus levels, mortality caused by cold stress, overall poor body condition, urolithiasis, serous fat atrophy, chronic energy deficiency, dental disease, and pancreatic disease, among others, have been
The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions contacted responded, representing 218 giraffe. All responding zoos fed concentrate and alfalfa hay was the primary forage. Sixty five percent of zoos fed browse and 43