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Physical meat quality characteristics of Angolan giraffe (Giraffa giraffa angolensis) as affected by sex and muscle

Giraffe numbers grow exponentially when farmed, necessitating periodic culling. This study quantified the effect of sex and muscle on the physical quality characteristics of eight giraffe muscles. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was the only parameter to be affected by an interaction between sex and muscle (P < 0.001), although the interaction for the CIE L* values tended towards significance (P = 0.054). Cooking loss (male = 41.6 ± 0.35%; female = 40.7 ± 0.33%; P = 0.024) and CIE

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Habitat use analysis of the Angolan giraffe (Giraffa giraffa angolensis) in the Kalahari ecosystem

Giraffe populations across the African continent have declined over the past decades, mainly due to habitat loss and fragmentation of subpopulations. To fight the decrease in numbers of the different giraffe species, conservation actions have been and are currently in place, such as translocations into protected areas and reintroductions into areas where giraffes have disappeared. In Namibia, the Angolan subspecies is widely spread and mostly found on private land, which offers the opportunity to study the species in closed environments,

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Bringing Angolan giraffe back to Angola – is it feasible in Iona National Park, Angola?

Understanding whether giraffe will survive in Iona NP might seem obvious, considering that the area is likely part of their former natural range. However, research on re-introductions suggests that historical occurrence, or a superficial look at the introduction site, is not enough to ensure success. Feasibility studies provide essential information on the current state of the habitat and other social, economic, and ecological factors. A feasibility study is especially important when a long time has elapsed since the extinction of

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Humans, megafauna and landscape structure – Rock engravings from Namibia encourage a comparative approach to central Europe and southern Africa

This paper deals with reflections that arose after observing prehistoric rock engravings at different locations in Namibia. These observations stimulated comparative considerations with focus on southern Africa and central Europe. Similar to the Aurignacian rock art of European origin, the most common motifs in the Namibian rock engravings are large animals. While in Europe, the species that served as a blueprint for the illustration of Aurignacian rock art have mostly disappeared, the megafauna illustrated on the rock engravings in Namibia

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An Exploratory Study into the Influence of Sex on Body Measurements, Carcass Weights and Meat Yields of Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis)

Various body measurements and commercial carcass yields of relatively young (2 1/2 –6 yrs old) giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) were investigated to quantify the effect of sex there upon. Eight male and eight female giraffe were culled by standard practice in Namibia, where body and horn measurements were taken, before the carcasses were dressed. There were no significant differences between the mean dead weights of the two sexes (bulls = 691.1 kg; cows = 636.5 kg; p = 0.096), the

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Indirect effects of African megaherbivore conservation on bat diversity in the world’s oldest desert

In extreme environments, temperature and precipitation are often the main forces responsible for structuring ecological communities and species distributions. The role of biotic interactions is typically thought to be minimal. By clustering around rare and isolated features, like surface water, however, effects of herbivory by desert-dwelling wildlife can be amplified. Understanding how species interact in these environments is critical to safeguarding vulnerable or data-deficient species. We examined whether African elephants (Loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), and southern giraffe (Giraffa

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Cytauxzoonosis In A Giraffe [Giraffa Camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] In Zululand

Cytauxzoonosis is reported for the first time in a giraffe [Giraffa camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] that died naturally of the disease. Both histiotropic and erythrocytic parasites were found. The animal was very anaemic and had marked haemoglobinuria. The most significant lesions were disseminated foci of haemorrhage and necrosis, especially in the liver, spleen and abomasum. Multiple haemorrhages also occurred on both pleura and peritoneum, within and on the entire gastro-intestinal tract, on the surface of the kidneys, subepicardially and in the

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Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia

Zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent zoonotic infections reported in Namibia between

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Skeletal dysplasia-like syndromes in wild giraffe

Objective: Skeletal dysplasias, cartilaginous or skeletal disorders that sometimes result in abnormal bone development, are seldom reported in free-ranging wild animals. Here, we use photogrammetry and comparative morphometric analyses to describe cases of abnormal appendicular skeletal proportions of free-ranging giraffe in two geographically distinct taxa: a Nubian giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis) in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda and an Angolan giraffe (Giraffa giraffa angolensis) on a private farm in central Namibia. Results: These giraffe exhibited extremely shortened radius and metacarpal

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The Mechanical and Material Designs of Composite Ju|’hoansi Arrowheads

In this paper, we elucidate the composite engineering design skills of the Kalahari Ju|’hoansi (San) people, developed over at least tens of thousands of years. In particular, we show that the mechanical and physical properties of materials used by the Ju|’hoansi in the design of arrowheads are intimately linked to their unique geometrical and composite designs. The Ju|’hoansi arrowheads have evolved to become complex engineered units with distinct function-specific purpose. We demonstrate herein that the geometrical designs of the arrowheads

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