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Detection and differentiation of Trichuris in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) under human care

Trichuris spp. are nematode parasites infecting many species, including domestic and wild ruminants in zoological and wildlife parks worldwide. These nematodes cause significant morbidity in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) and other hoofstock. Parasite transmission between ruminant species is well reported; however, relative to domestic species, little is known about Trichuris infections in giraffes under human care. We hypothesized that Trichuris spp. differ between individual giraffes in different US regions, suggesting giraffes are susceptible to Trichuris from other ruminant hosts. The study

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Comparison of comprehensive health score in North American housed giraffe and free-ranging giraffe from South Africa

As in humans, stress is evident in many animal species and has been correlated to disease prevalence; yet a value for reliable quantification of chronic stress is unestablished. During stressful events, allostasis, an adaptive process, is initiated by physiologic systems to maintain or reestablish homeostasis to protect an organism’s viability. Over time, the acclimation to frequent stress causes systematic dysregulation, leading to the phenomena of increased allostatic load. In recent studies, allostatic load has been assessed in animal species via

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Dental Disease and Serous Atrophy of Fat Syndrome in Captive Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

A condition characterized by serous atrophy of fat (SAF) has been reported as leading to peracute mortality in a number of giraffes at several institutions during the last 3 decades. These mortalities were originally attributed to insufficient protein and high fiber diets but were also associated with stress, other nutritional imbalances, and infectious and toxic conditions. A recent report attributes similar giraffe morbidity and mortality to hypoglycemia and chronic energy malnutrition mainly in younger giraffes.

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The art and science of giraffe (Giraffa camilopardalis) immobilization/anesthesia

The anesthesia/immobilization of giraffe is a unique specialty due to a combination of problems usually encountered in the procedure resulting in mortality or morbidity to the patient. This paper presents a historical description of the early drugs and methods and documents of the advances made in giraffe anesthesia during the last three decades. Also included are the current suggestions for both standing sedation and anesthesia/immobilization of this unique species. Suggestions include managing the giraffe prior to, during and following an

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