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Molecular and Serological Footprints of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Infections in Zoo Animals

Background: Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pose a significant risk to zoological collections. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a member of MAC and the causative agent of Johne’s disease. Despite many reports in animals kept in zoological gardens, systemic surveillance has rarely been reported. Methods: In this study, archived serum samples collected from animal species at the Wilhelma Zoological and Botanical Gardens in Stuttgart, Germany, were screened for the presence of antibodies against MAC and MAP. In

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Long-term population dynamics of African ungulates in Waterberg Plateau National Park, Namibia

The current study was undertaken to determine long-term population trends (33 years) of ungulate species in the Waterberg National Park (WNP), Namibia, using aerial and waterhole counts of ungulates during the years 1980−2013.We tried to establish how rainfall influences the multi-species population dynamics. During this period sixteen ungulates species were recorded. Among these, eight have shown an increase in numbers during the years 1984−2013, six other decreased, and populations of two other species remained stable. Roan and sable antelope, kudu

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Accuracy of noninvasive anesthetic monitoring in the anesthetized giraffe (Giraffe camelopardalis)

This study evaluated the accuracy of pulse oximetry, capnography, and oscillometric blood pressure during general anesthesia in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Thirty-two giraffes anesthetized for physiologic experiments were instrumented with a pulse oximeter transmittance probe positioned on the tongue and a capnograph sampling line placed at the oral end of the endotracheal tube. A human size 10 blood pressure cuff was placed around the base of the tail, and an indwelling arterial catheter in the auricular artery continuously measured blood pressure.

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