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The giraffe and its food resource in the Serengeti. II. Response of the giraffe population to changes in the food supply

The dynamics of the giraffe population of the Serengeti were quantified to ascertain the response of the population to the increasing biomass of the available browse resource. Aerial counts conducted in 1971 and 1976 together with analyses of fecundity and mortality data suggest a rate of population increase of some 5-6% per annum. Compared with the dynamics of a stable giraffe population in Nairobi National Park, the sub-adult components of the Serengeti regional populations are larger and juvenile growth rates

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A guide to estimating the age of Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

This is a guide for estimating the age of Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) with noninvasive methods.  Giraffes are commonly categorized into three age classes: calf (0 – 1 year), subadult (1 – 5 years) and adult (> 5 years). This categorization, though somewhat arbitrary, has its origins in giraffe life history. After birth, calves remain with their mothers for 12 – 18 months. Age at first reproduction varies but is usually around 4 – 5 for females and 7

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Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation Status of Masai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania

The focus of this thesis is on the behaviour, ecology and conservation of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania. Giraffes are the most elegant, conspicuous and tallest animals of the African savannah. Giraffes prefer savannah and are responsible for the architectural beauty of trees through browsing. Giraffes are social but are non territorial because individuals within a group are in constant change. Females are more often in mixed herds with calves, whereas males maintain a primarily solitary life. Giraffes

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Kidney of Giraffes

This study focuses on certain aspects of the renal structure of the giraffe, with some implications as to its function. About 4,000 collecting ducts open at the truncated end of a curved crest that juts into the renal pelvis as the inner medulla (IM). Extensions of the pelvis pass between the medullary (MP) and vascular (VP) processes almost to the corticomedullary border. The MPs contain an IM and an outer medulla (OM) containing clusters of capillaries (vascular bundles). The VPs

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Characterization of 16 microsatellite marker loci in the Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers with an average allele size of k = 4.3 are identified from a genomic plasmid library constructed for giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis ssp.). Primer sequences and marker data are reported in tabular form. The markers were screened in a population of 25 Maasai giraffe (G. c. tippelskirchi) collected near the Athi River, Kenya. The average observed heterozygosity for each marker was 0.36 with an average expected heterozygosity of 0.535. Hardy-Weinberg deviations are reported from this population, which

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Etorphine-Azaperone Immobilisation for Translocation of Free-Ranging Masai Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis Tippelskirchi): A Pilot Study

Etorphine-azaperone immobilisation was evaluated for translocation of Masai giraffes. Nine giraffes were darted with 0.012 ± 0.001 mg/kg etorphine and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg azaperone. Once ataxic, giraffes were roped for recumbency and restrained manually. Naltrexone (3 mg/mg etorphine) was immediately given intravenously to reverse etorphine-related side effects. Protocol evaluation included physiological monitoring, blood-gas analyses, anaesthetic times, and quality scores (1 = excellent, 4 = poor). Sedation onset and recumbency were achieved in 2.6 ± 0.8 and 5.6 ± 1.4

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Blood flow and pressure in the giraffe carotid artery

1. Carotid artery blood pressure and blood flow were measured and telemetered from wild giraffes ranging freely on the African plains. 2. The blood pressure ranged between 260/160 mm Hg when the animal was lying flat, and 120/75 mm Hg when it was standing upright; dp/dt at the onset of systole was 1500 mm/sec. 3. Peak systolic blood velocity measured at the same site was 60 cm/sec; during diastole velocity remained above 40 cm/sec. Calculated blood flow in the carotid

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The effects of increased hay-grain ratio on masai giraffe behavior, health indicators and fecal microflora diversity

We hypothesized that switching to a diet that provides a higher hay-to-grain ratio offered to four Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and increase time spent performing feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio, and alter fecal microbiome community structure. The diet change consisted of transitioning the male from a 50:50 hay-to-grain ratio and the females from a 70:30 hay-to-grain ratio to a 90:10 ratio in even

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Diurnal Behaviour and Utilization of Shade in Masai Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

Observations were carried out in the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya, which is the northern part of the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem in Kenya and Tanzania. Activity and behaviour of Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) was recorded with one-minute intervals for continuous periods of approximately twelve hours per day for two weeks in February and March 2007. The total observation time was 200 hours in females, 116 hours in males and 99 hours in offspring. The aim of the study was

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Movements and source–sink dynamics of a Masai giraffe metapopulation

Spatial variation in habitat quality and anthropogenic factors, as well as social structure, can lead to spatially structured populations of animals. Demographic approaches can be used to improve our understanding of the dynamics of spatially structured populations and help identify subpopulations critical for the long-term persistence of regional metapopulations. We provide a regional metapopulation analysis to inform conservation management for Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in five subpopulations defined by land management designations. We used data from an individual-based mark–recapture

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