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Diet of lions and spotted hyaenas assessed from stomach contents

Analyses of stomach contents was used to assess the diet of lions and spotted hyaenas in the Central District of Kruger National Park. Of 257 lion and 167 spotted hyaena stomachs examined 47,1% and 10,8% respectively, were empty. The relative edible biomass contributed by each prey animal to the diet of lions is given. For spotted hyaenas the relative importance of each prey animal was assessed by considering both frequency of occurrence and the amount found in each stomach. During

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The applicability of lion prey selection models to smaller game reserves in South Africa

Prey selection by lions (Panthera leo) reintroduced into small game reserves (typically <1000 km2) in South Africa was compared with results from larger (more naturally functioning) protected areas. Prey selection was used to calculate mean preference indices, and where sample size allowed, tested for significance of preference, as well as for comparisons with current estimates in the literature. The model by Hayward & Kerley (2005) was found to be 85% accurate, suggesting it is well suited as a predictive tool

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Investigating a simplified method for noninvasive genetic sampling in East African mammals using silica dried scat swabs

Swabbing scat has proved to be an effective noninvasive method to collect DNA from mammals in the field. Previously, this method has relied on preservative liquids or freezing to preserve the DNA collected on swabs. In this study, we determine the effectiveness of using silica to simply dry the swab in field as an alternative way to prevent DNA degredation. Four species were included in the study; reticulated giraffe, impala, fringe-eared oryx, and lion. Swabs were taken at multiple time

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Using claw marks to study lion predation on giraffes of the Serengeti

Although lions Panthera leo are the main predators of the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis, interactions between these species are rarely observed directly. As a consequence, little is known about the effects of lions on giraffe mortality and behavior. We test patterns of lion predation on Masai giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi using a new methodology: lion claw marks observable on the skin of live giraffes. We studied 702 individually known giraffes in 3 non-neighboring areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania between August

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African lion (Panthera leo) behavior, monitoring, and survival in human-dominated landscapes

Chapter 1, “Demography of a persecuted African lion population,” investigates the basic demographic characteristics of a lion population on human and livestock dominated lands where unregulated, retaliatory hunting of both sexes and all ages had occurred for centuries. I also examine the individual characteristics of stock-raiding lions. Chapter 2, “Participatory monitoring of an elusive carnivore on community lands,” I test the inclusion of local communities in wildlife monitoring and conservation, i.e. participatory monitoring, as a method for collecting data on

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Prey preferences of the spotted hyaena ( Crocuta crocuta ) and degree of dietary overlap with the lion (Panthera leo)

Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta were once considered mere scavengers; however, detailed research revealed that they are very efficient predators. Information on what spotted hyaenas actually prefer to prey on and what they avoid is lacking, as well as the factors that influence prey selection. Data from 14 published and one unpublished study from six countries throughout the distribution of the spotted hyaena were used to determine which prey species were preferred and which were avoided using Jacobs’ index. The mean

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Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo)

Lions Panthera leo are generally thought to prey on medium to large ungulates. Knowledge of which species are actually preferred and which are avoided is lacking, however, as is an understanding of why such preference or avoidance may arise. An analysis of 32 studies over 48 different spatial locations or temporal periods throughout the distribution of the lion shows that it preferentially preys upon species within a weight range of 190–550 kg. The most preferred weight of lion prey is

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