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Correlates of survival rates for 10 African ungulate populations: density, rainfall and predation

1. Through reconciling census totals with population structure, annual survival rates were estimated for the juvenile, yearling and adult stages of 10 ungulate species over 14 years or longer in South Africa’s Kruger National Park. During this period four species maintained high abundance levels, while six species declined progressively in abundance. 2. Multiple regression models fitted to these estimates indicated that juvenile survival was sensitive to annual variability in rainfall for most of these species, especially in the dry season

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