Search the Article Database:

Search our library of articles, papers and other published materials. You can use keywords or boolean-style search:

Diet of lions and spotted hyaenas assessed from stomach contents

Analyses of stomach contents was used to assess the diet of lions and spotted hyaenas in the Central District of Kruger National Park. Of 257 lion and 167 spotted hyaena stomachs examined 47,1% and 10,8% respectively, were empty. The relative edible biomass contributed by each prey animal to the diet of lions is given. For spotted hyaenas the relative importance of each prey animal was assessed by considering both frequency of occurrence and the amount found in each stomach. During

View Details + Download

Estimating the trends in herbivore numbers in the Southern District of the Kruger National Park

Census data over several years of survey were utilized to develop a sampling strategy in which the species totals for both abundant and rare herbivore species can be estimated should aerial sample surveys be conducted. Correspondence analysis is used towards the development of this sampling strategy. The study pertains to the Southern District of the Kruger National Park. Census data from 1977 to 1989 were used. It is shown that the trends indicated by the census data, are also clearly

View Details + Download

An evaluation of the use of correspondence analysis for the analysis of herbivore – habitat selection

The necessity for finding an objective method for the identification and evaluation of the salient factors affecting habitat selection in large-herbivore/habitat relationships served as motivation for the present study. A number of habitat parameters were recorded for eight important large herbivores in the Kruger National Park and subjected to correspondence analysis. This method yielded satisfactory results and illustrated animal species associations, based on the selection for similar habitat factors, and the habitat factors most favoured by each species. Analysis of

View Details + Download

Stable carbon isotope reconstruction of ungulate diet changes through the seasonal cycle

We analysed stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in faeces of 11 African ungulate species from three South African savanna environments to determine whether this approach is sufficiently sensitive to record short-term seasonal diet changes in browsers (BR), mixed-feeders (IM), and grazers (GR). At monthly intervals, faecal δ13C revealed variations in proportions of C3 (browse) to C4 (grass) biomass consumed that were not detected by broader dry versus wet season comparisons, including subtle diet shifts amongst BR and GR. However, trends

View Details + Download

Body size and habitat as determinants of tick infestations of wild ungulates in South Africa

The purpose of the present work was to test the hypothesis that the intensity of tick infestation on South African wild ungulates is proportional to surface area of the host (body weight 0.67} and to assess the role of habitat preference on the intensity of infestations. The results support previous suggestions that larger ungulates are more important hosts for adult ticks, however, the intensity of infestation of nymphs and larvae is proportional to the surface area of the host. Grazers

View Details + Download

Early detection of declining populations using floor and ceiling models

1. Within Caughley’s (1994) declining population paradigm for conservation, we develop a realistic method of detecting population changes using floor and ceiling population models. 2. A theoretical framework for detecting declining populations is presented and applied to four ungulate species from Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. Census data are fitted to a non-linear autoregressive population model. Based on this model two auxiliary models, called the floor and ceiling models, are derived. These models predict the upper and lower threshold

View Details + Download

ENSO, rainfall and temperature influences on extreme population declines among African savanna ungulates

Climatic variation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nin˜o- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a widespread influence on the population dynamics of many organisms worldwide. While previous analyses have related the dynamics of northern ungulates to the NAO, there has been no comparable assessment for the species rich assemblages of tropical and subtropical Africa. Census records for 11 ungulate species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park over 1977–96 reveal severe population declines by seven species, which were inadequately

View Details + Download

Effects of body size on the diurnal activity budgets of African browsing ruminants

We compared the diurnal activity budgets of four syntopic species of African browsing ruminant that differ widely in body size. These were concurrently studied through all phases of the seasonal cycle, in the same area, using the same methods. We tested five predictions from the literature on how body size is expected to influence the behaviour of tropical ungulates: the smallest members of the browsing ruminant guild exhibit (1) the lowest allocation of diurnal time to activity; (2) the greatest

View Details + Download

Evaluating Population Persistence of Censused and Unmanaged Herbivore Populations from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

The application of the Dennis et al. (Ecol. Monogr., 61, 1991) model to data from 12 herbivore populations from the Kruger National Park, South Africa, introduces “risk assessment’ procedures into the conservation management of free-ranging species. The model enables one to predict the probability of reaching an arbitrarily defined threshold population size using census figures from censused and unmanaged populations. It also provides an objective evaluation of population persistence based on past performance. Of the 12 species investigated, five (impala

View Details + Download

Giraffes and the pollination ecology of knobthorns (Acacia nigrescens)

Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) consume large quantities of knobthorn (Acacia nigrescens) flowers every year, and may be acting as pollinators. Because knobthorns flower in the late dry season, nutritionally a critical time of year for ungulates, the flowers are an important source of food for giraffes, especially since they are not physically protected against herbivory. Giraffes visit the flowering trees reliably year after year, carry pollen on their heads and necks, and cover large distances between knobthorns. In this study, conducted

View Details + Download