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Noninvasive sampling method for urinalysis and urine protein profile in captive giraffes

Urinalysis could be helpful to investigate the health status of giraffes held in captivity using noninvasive methods to avoid animal handling or anesthesia. We collected 52 voided urine samples from 20 giraffes of different ages, sexes, and subspecies from the ground. To evaluate potential interference by soil contaminants, a pilot study was performed using 20 urine samples obtained from 10 cows. All bovine and 29 giraffe samples were subjected to routine urinalysis including urine specific gravity (USG). All samples were

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First Insights into the Urinary Metabolome of Captive Giraffes by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

The urine from 35 giraffes was studied by untargeted 1H-NMR, with the purpose of obtaining, for the first time, a fingerprint of its metabolome. The metabolome, as downstream of the transcriptome and proteome, has been considered as the most representative approach to monitor the relationships between animal physiological features and environment. Thirty-nine molecules were unambiguously quantified, able to give information about diet, proteins digestion, energy generation, and gut-microbial co-metabolism. The samples collected allowed study of the effects of age and

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