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Seasonal changes in social networks of giraffes

Fission-fusion social societies allow animals to respond in a flexible manner to environmental changes by adapting the size and composition of a group. Although group members change frequently in these systems, associations with preferred partners may be found. In this study, we examined the grouping patterns of a population of 80 individual giraffes in a fenced South African game reserve over a 12-month period. Using social network analyses as a tool to evaluate observed associations, we subsequently analysed both sex-

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Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania

Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse availability as a result of a dramatic decline in elephant numbers, and bush encroachment following a series of anthrax epidemics that killed impala. Giraffe densities in Manyara are high compared to other areas

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