Search the Article Database:

Search our library of articles, papers and other published materials. You can use keywords or boolean-style search:

Why Giraffes have Anxiety

The location of zoos in metropolitan areas exposes animals to stressors that they are not biologically adapted to. The abundance of visitors and their close proximity to the animals causes undue harm to the creatures’ welfare, resulting in a poor quality of life.

View Details + Download

Ephemeral and Perpetual Diversity in Giraffa Camelopardalis

It is necessary to understand how giraffes could have evolved. We came up with Darwin’s theory, Lamarckism, and so forth. However, in a manuscript, I classified the species of Giraffa Camelopardalis in light of the heights as an arbitrary principle. Nevertheless, I wrote a paper on classifying Giraffa Camelopardalis species using heights as the reference point. It highlights the evolution of the giraffe posture in light of two characteristics of its postures, namely ephemeral diversity and perpetual diversity. Our theory

View Details + Download

Evaluating physiological and behavioural responses to social changes and construction in two zoo-housed female giraffes

Exposure to external repeated or long-term stressors can alter animal behaviour and physiology. At zoos, construction of new buildings and habitats is one potential unavoidable long-term stressor. During the construction of a new exhibit near the giraffe enclosure at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL), the Zoo’s two female giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi and Giraffa reticulata, were monitored for changes in behavior and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels during five phases of construction and enclosure access. The FGM analysis was validated

View Details + Download

Mammal road-type associations in Kruger National Park, South Africa: Common mammals do not avoid tar roads more than dirt roads

The majority of Africa’s parks and conservation areas have a vast road network, facilitating motorized vehicle game viewing. These roads have an influence that is both road type- and species-specific, on the surrounding ecosystem. Due to their higher traffic volumes, we hypothesized that tar roads and their immediate surrounds within the Kruger National Park, South Africa, are avoided to a greater extent by medium-to-large mammals than comparable dirt roads in the park. We systematically recorded the presence of medium-to-large mammal

View Details + Download

Animal Detection for Road safety using Deep Learning

The recognition of big animals on the images with road scenes has received little attention in modern research. There are very few specialized data sets for this task. Popular open data sets contain many images of big animals, but the most part of them is not correspond to road scenes that is necessary for on-board vision systems of unmanned vehicles. The paper describes the preparation of such a specialized data set based on Google Open Images and COCO datasets. The

View Details + Download

Seismic savanna: machine learning for classifying wildlife and behaviours using ground-based vibration field recordings

We develop a machine learning approach to detect and discriminate elephants from other species, and to recognise important behaviours such as running and rumbling, based only on seismic data generated by the animals. We demonstrate our approach using data acquired in the Kenyan savanna, consisting of 8000 h seismic recordings and 250 k camera trap pictures. Our classifiers, different convolutional neural networks trained on seismograms and spectrograms, achieved 80%–90% balanced accuracy in detecting elephants up to 100 m away, and

View Details + Download

Anaplasma Infections In Wild And Domestic Ruminants: A Review

Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu),

View Details + Download

Conservation Status of Giraffe: Evaluating Contemporary Distribution and Abundance with Evolving Taxonomic Perspectives

Giraffe are iconic figures across a range of African landscapes but they are currently under considerable conservation threat. Although they are widely distributed throughout 21 different countries, continent-wide populations have declined considerably over the past several decades, highlighted by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) new categorization of giraffe as a single species as “Vulnerable.” Recent genetic studies, however, propose alternative taxonomic categorizations in which giraffe are comprised of four distinct species. These proposed taxonomic classifications have

View Details + Download

Factors Affecting the Survival of Giraffe in Ethiopia

Giraffe are social animals and non-territorial and tend to live in a small group. In Ethiopia there are two species of giraffe; the Nubian giraffe (giraffe camelopardalis) and Reticulated giraffe (giraffa reticulated) occur in southern low lands, east of Omo river including the Mago National Park, Borena and Ogden area. Giraffe populations in Ethiopia diminished over the past century in diversity, density and distribution as a result of illegal hunting, habitat degradation, civil war and unrest, the absence of a

View Details + Download

Main threats and habitat characteristics to West African giraffes

Les girafes de l’Afrique de l’ouest (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) vivent en petites populations isolées au Sud-est du Niger et partagent leur espace de vie avec la communauté locale. La girafe fait face à de nombreuses menaces directes et indirectes dans l’ensemble de son aire de distribution. L’objectif de cette étude est d’identifier sur le plan historique les changements et les menaces de la conservation des girafes de l’Afrique de l’ouest. Ainsi, pendant la recherche, les publications de 1970 à 2019

View Details + Download