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A review of the social behaviour of the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis: a misunderstood but socially complex species

1. Until around 2000, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were believed to have no social structure. Despite a resurgence of interest in giraffe behaviour in around 2010, most studies are of isolated populations, making it difficult to draw general conclusions. Although it is now well established that giraffe social organisation is non-random, there is little consensus as to what influences preferred and avoided associations or the underpinning mechanisms. 2. We test two hypotheses: first, giraffe have a complex cooperative social system, exhibited

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Giraffa camelopardalis: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data Book), founded in 1964, is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. Giraffa camelopardalis – Provisionally listed as Least Concern as the species remains widespread, with a total population numbering more than 100,000 individuals. However, a recent preliminary population estimate suggests a decline in the total population has taken place which,

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Maternal Behaviour in Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Allomaternal care is one of the most interesting types of cooperation among females. Its most extreme form is allonursing, nursing of a non-filial young, which is still not completely understood, even though many hypotheses have been postulated. This type of cooperation among giraffes had not been expected for long time. This was based on the initial opinion that giraffes do not have social system and form only weak social bonds. However, my bachelor and master theses showed high occurrence of

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Gastrointestinal Parasites in Giraffes Kept in Zoological Gardens of the Czech Republic

Parasite prevalence was investigated in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) housed in six major Czech zoological gardens: Zoo Ostrava, Zoo Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Zoo Liberec, Zoo Olomouc, Zoo Praha, and Zoo Plzeň. In autumn 2012 and in spring 2013, 120 faecal samples from 21 animals were examined using the McMaster egg counting technique. Propagative stages of three parasite groups were discovered, namely eggs of the nematodes of the order Strongylida (prevalence 25.8%), whipworms Trichuris spp. (prevalence 25%), and oocysts of the

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Comparison of comprehensive health score in North American housed giraffe and free-ranging giraffe from South Africa

As in humans, stress is evident in many animal species and has been correlated to disease prevalence; yet a value for reliable quantification of chronic stress is unestablished. During stressful events, allostasis, an adaptive process, is initiated by physiologic systems to maintain or reestablish homeostasis to protect an organism’s viability. Over time, the acclimation to frequent stress causes systematic dysregulation, leading to the phenomena of increased allostatic load. In recent studies, allostatic load has been assessed in animal species via

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Evaluation of somatotype in the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) using three-dimensional laser measurement

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a difficult animal to keep in captivity as it has high mortality due to nutrition-related disorders, perhaps because the giraffe’s condition is difficult to evaluate. Image analysis techniques have recently become popular and may be useful for evaluating the giraffe’s somatotype. The present study aimed to evaluate the giraffe somatotype using a three-dimensional laser measurement device, and to examine the usefulness of this method. First, ten zoo staff members visually evaluated the somatotypes of three

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A comparison of postnatal arterial patterns in a growth series of giraffe (Artiodactyla: Giraffa camelopardalis)

Nearly all living artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) possess a derived cranial arterial pattern that is highly distinctive from most other mammals. Foremost among a suite of atypical arterial configurations is the functional and anatomical replacement of the internal carotid artery with an extensive, subdural arterial meshwork called the carotid rete. This interdigitating network branches from the maxillary artery and is housed within the cavernous venous sinus. As the cavernous sinus receives cooled blood draining from the nasal mucosa, heat rapidly dissipates

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Cytauxzoonosis In A Giraffe [Giraffa Camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] In Zululand

Cytauxzoonosis is reported for the first time in a giraffe [Giraffa camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] that died naturally of the disease. Both histiotropic and erythrocytic parasites were found. The animal was very anaemic and had marked haemoglobinuria. The most significant lesions were disseminated foci of haemorrhage and necrosis, especially in the liver, spleen and abomasum. Multiple haemorrhages also occurred on both pleura and peritoneum, within and on the entire gastro-intestinal tract, on the surface of the kidneys, subepicardially and in the

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Giraffe taxonomy, geographic distribution and conservation

The conservation implications of taxonomic pedigrees and geographic distributions are substantial because the two entities are inseparable when the goal is saving bio- diversity and ecosystems. Yet, neither Latin nomenclature nor animal movement patterns are static over time because modifications result as more data are collected. Scientists have recently reassessed both the taxonomy and geographic range of giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis. Evidence has been presented that giraffes ought to be classified into anywhere from one to nine species, and that their

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Sociability increases survival of adult female giraffes

Studies increasingly show that social connectedness plays a key role in determining survival, in addition to natural and anthropogenic environmental factors. Few studies, however, integrated social, non-social and demographic data to elucidate what components of an animal’s socioecological environment are most important to their survival. Female giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) form structured societies with highly dynamic group membership but stable long-term associations. We examined the relative contributions of sociability (relationship strength, gregariousness and betweenness), together with those of the natural (food

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