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Survival of the tallest

The extreme adaptations of the giraffe have fuelled evolutionary hypotheses since the time of Lamarck. In-depth studies of its genomes are now yielding solid answers about its evolution, along with the identifi cation of new species. A better understanding of its biology, including its social behaviour, may help to secure the future of this unique animal.

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Large-scale ruminant genome sequencing provides insights into their evolution and distinct traits

The ruminants are one of the most successful mammalian lineages, exhibiting morphological and habitat diversity and containing several key livestock species. To better understand their evolution, we generated and analyzed de novo assembled genomes of 44 ruminant species, representing all six Ruminantia families. We used these genomes to create a time-calibrated phylogeny to resolve topological controversies, overcoming the challenges of incomplete lineage sorting. Population dynamic analyses show that population declines commenced between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, which is concomitant

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