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An Evolutionary History of Browsing and Grazing Ungulates

Browsing (i.e., eating woody and non-woody dicotyledonous plants) and grazing (i.e., eating grass) are distinctively different types of feeding behaviour among ungulates today. Ungulates with different diets have different morphologies (both craniodental ones and in aspects of the digestive system) and physiologies, although some of these differences are merely related to body size, as grazers are usually larger than browsers. There is also a difference in the foraging behaviour in terms of the relationship between resource abundance and intake rate,

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The effects of increased hay-grain ratio on masai giraffe behavior, health indicators and fecal microflora diversity

We hypothesized that switching to a diet that provides a higher hay-to-grain ratio offered to four Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and increase time spent performing feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio, and alter fecal microbiome community structure. The diet change consisted of transitioning the male from a 50:50 hay-to-grain ratio and the females from a 70:30 hay-to-grain ratio to a 90:10 ratio in even

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Feeding behaviour of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Orange Free State

The habitat and feeding behaviour of giraffe in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Orange Free State, are described. Acacia karroo, the single most important component, together with Asparagus laricinus, Rhus undulata and Ziziphus mucronata, comprises almost 90% of the giraffe’s diet. During the wet season deciduous plants of the savanna flats are preferred, but in the dry season the animals concentrate on evergreen plants in the more densely vegetated kopjies. Seasonal variation with respect to the number of plant species

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Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology: Energetic and social constraints

Sex ratios of giraffe groups differ in different habitats, with open vegetation having female‐biased groups, and tall, thick vegetation having male‐biased groups. On a ranch in south‐central Kenya, we quantified habitat differences of male and female giraffe groups and showed that the preference for open habitats by female groups was limited to groups with young. We suggest that this difference is due to the avoidance of predators of young giraffes. We also showed that rates of giraffe feeding peaked at

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The feeding behaviour of giraffe in Niger

The remaining West African giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are found in Niger (62 individuals in January 1998). Their feeding behaviour was studied by direct observation during two periods of 6 and 12 mo. The giraffe’s diet is diverse: at least 45 plant species were eaten, depending on spatial arrangement and a given plant’s stage of growth. Time spent browsing during the dry season was twice that devoted to browsing during the rainy season (46 and 23 % respectively). Time spent feeding

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A seasonal feast: long-term analysis of feeding behaviour in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)

The feeding behaviour of the Talek clan of spotted hyaenas in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, was monitored continuously for 7 years. Talek hyaenas adapted to large temporal variations in prey abundance by being opportunistic predators. During the first half of the year, the hyaenas fed on resident ungulates, and their diet consisted mainly of topi and Thomson’s gazelles. Upon arrival of the migratory herds of wildebeest and zebra from the Serengeti, Talek hyaenas switched to feeding on the

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