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Detection and differentiation of Trichuris in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) under human care

Trichuris spp. are nematode parasites infecting many species, including domestic and wild ruminants in zoological and wildlife parks worldwide. These nematodes cause significant morbidity in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) and other hoofstock. Parasite transmission between ruminant species is well reported; however, relative to domestic species, little is known about Trichuris infections in giraffes under human care. We hypothesized that Trichuris spp. differ between individual giraffes in different US regions, suggesting giraffes are susceptible to Trichuris from other ruminant hosts. The study

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Detection of Trichuris eggs in feces and soil from giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and other hoofstock enclosures under human care in the USA

Trichuris spp. are nematode parasites infecting wild ruminants in zoological institutions worldwide. These helminths cause significant morbidity in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and other hoofstock located in zoological institutions throughout the United States. Historically, studies and institutions have used a variety of nematode detection methods with various flotation solutions. Optimization of Trichuris egg detection is necessary for monitoring collections. Fecal and soil optimized protocols were generated in this study using samples containing Trichuris eggs from multiple semi free-ranging zoological institutions. First,

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The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes

One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in

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Age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes

In many mammal species, androgen levels in males are elevated during periods of mating activity, often to facilitate aggressive behavior between males over access to fertile females. However, this pattern might be less obvious in species with a rather low male-male aggression rate, or in those that are not strictly seasonal breeders. A complex social structure, as well as additional social and environmental factors, might add more to the complexity. Here, we applied a non-invasive method to monitor fecal androgen

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Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency-like syndrome in giraffe

Studies were conducted on four giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with diarrhea and three clinically healthy ones. The feces from both healthy and sick animals were examined to determine amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. In the feces of the giraffe with diarrhea a significant decrease of amylase and lipase activity was noted. The trypsin activity remained unchanged. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency-like syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of laboratory investigations and histopathological examinations. The administration of pancreatic enzyme supplements (Pancreatin; Polfa, Poland) had

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