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Noninvasive sampling method for urinalysis and urine protein profile in captive giraffes

Urinalysis could be helpful to investigate the health status of giraffes held in captivity using noninvasive methods to avoid animal handling or anesthesia. We collected 52 voided urine samples from 20 giraffes of different ages, sexes, and subspecies from the ground. To evaluate potential interference by soil contaminants, a pilot study was performed using 20 urine samples obtained from 10 cows. All bovine and 29 giraffe samples were subjected to routine urinalysis including urine specific gravity (USG). All samples were

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Urinary Reference Values and First Insight into the Urinary Proteome of Captive Giraffes

Urinalysis is widely recognized to be a useful tool in routine health investigations, since it can diagnose numerous pathologies. Considering the paucity of knowledge concerning giraffes, urine from 44 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (18 males and 26 females, from 3 months of age to 21 years of age) underwent routine urinalysis, 1D-electrophoresis, and protein identification using mass spectrometry, with the aim of identifying the urinary reference values and the urine proteome. The urine specific gravity (USG), urine total proteins (uTP), urine

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Preliminary study on the urine proteome of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Data on proteinuria are lacking in giraffes, therefore the aim of our research was to study urine proteome with sensitive analytical methods to obtain important information regarding not only the kidney function but also the general health status. Twenty-nine samples were collected during 2013 and 2014, through non-invasive methods (from the ground by a syringe) from 4 specimens of Giraffa camelopardalis. Urinary total proteins (UTP), creatinine and the urine protein to creatinine ratio (UP/C) were measured by automated methods (Olympus

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Comparison of in vitro tests for evaluation of Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulins in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Serum samples from captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) were tested to assess passive transfer of immunoglobulins using in vitro methods developed for domestic ruminants. Estimated immunoglobulin levels were compared using five tests (protein electrophoresis, total protein refractometry, zinc sulfate turbidity, glutaraldehyde coagulation, and sodium sulfite turbidity). A linear relationship was observed among total protein, gamma globulin (electrophoretic measurement), and immunoglobulin level based on spectrophotometric measurement of zinc sulfate turbidity. Nonquantitative assays also demonstrated statistical correlation with the quantitative methods. Using criteria

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