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The cardiovascular challenges in giraffes

Giraffes are the highest living animals on Earth and therefore are challenged by gravity more than any other species. In particular the cardiovascular system needs to adapt to this challenge. Giraffes have a mean blood pressure around 200 mmHg, which ensures a mean arterial pressure near the head of 100 mmHg when the giraffe is standing with the neck in a near vertical position. This immediately raises several questions. How do giraffes avoid edema in the legs where the arterial

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